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PES_article - Generator Fault Tolerance and Grid Codes...

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1540-7977/10/$26.00©2010 IEEE 18 IEEE power & energy magazine march/april 2010 Generator Fault Tolerance and Grid Codes Digital Object Identif er 10.1109/MPE.2009.935560
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march/april 2010 IEEE power & energy magazine 19 Clarifying Confusion with Transient Stability Requirements By Richard Piwko, Nicholas Miller, R. Thomas Girard, Jason MacDowell, Kara Clark, and Alexander Murdoch I IN LARGE INTERCONNECTED POWER GRIDS, IT IS INCUMBENT ON each generating plant to do its fair share in maintaining the security and reliability of the grid. The ability of a power plant to continue operation after a grid distur- bance is governed by the ability of its generator to recover voltage and remain in synchronism 1) with the power grid after the disturbance (i.e., transient stability) the ability of its turbine generator and auxiliary systems to remain in opera- 2) tion during and after the disturbance (i.e., fault ride-through capability). Power grids have a long tradition of well-established reliability criteria and stan- dardized engineering design practices that have formed the basis of power grid development, design, and operation. In some parts of the world, these criteria and practices have been formalized into grid codes. Recently, fault ride-through (FRT) requirements have been receiving the most attention. In this article, we review the roots of transient stability requirements and recent developments in FRT require- ments for wind plants. We discuss how wind plant FRT requirements are being imposed on conventional plants with synchronous machines and how interpreta- tions of FRT requirements have been growing to cover some aspects of transient stability. We conclude with a discussion about how FRT requirements should com- plement the established reliability criteria that provide the basis for the transient stability of power grids. Historical Perspective In its most basic concept, the reliable and secure operation of a power system is tied to the ability of its mix of generation, transmission, and loads to operate under a variety of conditions. The basic energy balance is tied to the transmission and generation mix and the need to have closed-loop controls that are steady state and dynamically stable in normal operation. The requirement to maintain system integrity during various system events led to the concept of transient stability. In the broadest sense, the idea of transient stability is to be able to survive a variety of disturbances in the system and have the generation and load return to a balanced condition. Soon after the industry started connecting synchronous generators to trans- mission networks and loads, issues relating to transient stability arose. The semi- nal work of Stanley, Park, Summers, McClure, Crary, and Concordia (along with ©PHOTODISC, DIGITAL VISION
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20 IEEE power & energy magazine march/april 2010 many others) led to practical dynamic models of generators.
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2011 for the course EE 472 taught by Professor Dr.ilyagrinberg during the Spring '10 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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PES_article - Generator Fault Tolerance and Grid Codes...

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