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Unformatted text preview: --------------------------------------Chapter 1----------------------------------------------------------------Spring equinox: sun directly overhead of EquatorSummer solstice:sun directly overhead of Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N latitude)Autumnal equinox: sun directly overhead of Equator (0°N latitude)Winter solstice: sun directly overhead of Tropic of Capricorn (23.5°S latitudeEratosthenes (276-195 B.C.), librarian at Alexandria, Egypt, then part of Greek empire, used the geometry of shadows and trigonometry.When sun is directly over head the sun casts no shadowQ2. What are the Earth’s radius and diameter?C = 2pr_ 40,030 km = (2)(3.14)(r)_ r = 6371_ kmD=2r = 2*6371 km=12,742 km Earthquake:vibration caused by sudden breaking or sliding of rock.They are concentrated in certain narrow regions or belts.Volcano: opening from which molten rock from inside the Earth spews out onto Earth’s surface; mountain built up from materials ejected from opening.They are concentrated in the same regions as earthquakes are.(Techtonic)Plates- Earth’s surface is divided into multiple plates. Plates move with respect to one another. Most earthquakes occur on or near the edges of plates. Plates consist of strong lithosphere that rides on and moves over weak asthenosphere. 15-16 plates on earthDivergent:move apart. Hot material rises between plates. New material added to plates. Typically characterized by a mid-ocean ridge or spreading center. Ex: Mid-Atlantic RidgeConvergent: move toward one another. One plate dives beneath other. Material is lost from surface of Earth. Typically characterized by a deep-sea trench. Example: South American subduction zone--Nazca plate dives under South American plateConservative (transform): slide past one another. EQ’s occur where plates scrape past one another. Material is neither added nor lost. Characterized by transform faults. Example: San Andreas fault--North American plate slides pastCrust:outermost solid layer of the Earth. 8 to 75kmMantle:middle layer of the Earth. 2900kmCore:central region of the Earth 6370kmLithosphere: strong, rigid outer layer, 0-100/200kmAsthenosphere: weak layer beneath the lithosphere, 100/200-200/350Mesosphere – solid biggest layer of core under asthenosphere, 200/350-500kmOuter core: liquid part of core, 5150kmInner core:solid part of coreMineral: naturally occurring solid material with a definite chemical composition and internal arrangement of atoms.Rock:a coherent, naturally occurring solid made up of an aggregate of minerals.Igneous rocks: rocks formed by the solidification of molten material.Sedimentary rocks:rocks formed by the accumulation of material derived from other rocksMetamorphic rocks:rocks formed by the transformation of other rocks in the solid state by high temperature & pressureEarth’s history– 4,570,000,000.4.5x109....
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course GEO 460 taught by Professor Schlische during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '10