Test Review 1 - -Chapter 1-Spring equinox sun directly...

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--------------------------------------Chapter 1---------------------------------------------------------------- Spring equinox : sun directly overhead of Equator Summer solstice : sun directly overhead of Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N latitude) Autumnal equinox : sun directly overhead of Equator (0°N latitude) Winter solstice : sun directly overhead of Tropic of Capricorn (23.5°S latitude Eratosthenes (276-195 B.C. ), librarian at Alexandria, Egypt, then part of Greek empire, used the geometry of shadows and trigonometry. When sun is directly over head the sun casts no shadow Q2. What are the Earth’s radius and diameter? C = 2pr_ 40,030 km = (2)(3.14)(r)_ r = 6371_ kmD=2r = 2*6371 km=12,742 km Earthquake : vibration caused by sudden breaking or sliding of rock. They are concentrated in certain narrow regions or belts. Volcano : opening from which molten rock from inside the Earth spews out onto Earth’s surface; mountain built up from materials ejected from opening. They are concentrated in the same regions as earthquakes are. (Techtonic)Plates - Earth’s surface is divided into multiple plates. Plates move with respect to one another. Most earthquakes occur on or near the edges of plates. Plates consist of strong lithosphere that rides on and moves over weak asthenosphere. 15-16 plates on earth Divergent : move apart. Hot material rises between plates. New material added to plates. Typically characterized by a mid-ocean ridge or spreading center. Ex: Mid-Atlantic Ridge Convergent : move toward one another. One plate dives beneath other. Material is lost from surface of Earth. Typically characterized by a deep-sea trench. Example: South American subduction zone--Nazca plate dives under South American plate Conservative (transform) : slide past one another. EQ’s occur where plates scrape past one another. Material is neither added nor lost. Characterized by transform faults. Example: San Andreas fault--North American plate slides past Crust : outermost solid layer of the Earth. 8 to 75km Mantle : middle layer of the Earth. 2900km Core : central region of the Earth 6370km Lithosphere : strong, rigid outer layer, 0-100/200km Asthenosphere : weak layer beneath the lithosphere, 100/200-200/350 Mesosphere – solid biggest layer of core under asthenosphere, 200/350-500km Outer core : liquid part of core, 5150km Inner core : solid part of core Mineral : naturally occurring solid material with a definite chemical composition and internal arrangement of atoms. Rock : a coherent, naturally occurring solid made up of an aggregate of minerals. Igneous rocks : rocks formed by the solidification of molten material. Sedimentary rocks : rocks formed by the accumulation of material derived from other rocks Metamorphic rocks : rocks formed by the transformation of other rocks in the solid state by high temperature & pressure Earth’s history – 4,570,000,000. 4.5x10 9. Phanerozoic(0-600Mil), Proterozoic(600-2500), Archean(2500-3800), Hadean(3800-4570) --------------------------------------Chapter 2---------------------------------------------------------------- Earth is made of rocks, which are composed of minerals. Minerals provide clues to origin of rocks and vice versa. Ore minerals are source for valuable metals such as copper, gold & silver and energy sources such as uranium .Industrial minerals serve as raw materials for manufacturing. Gem quality minerals give sparkle to jewelry.
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