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CH_13student - Ch.13HeadandSpineInjuries...

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Ch. 13-Head and Spine Injuries Ch. 13-Head and Spine Injuries 1
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Types of Head Injury Types of Head Injury Injury to the Scalp Injury to the Brain Injury to the Skull (skull fracture) 2
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Signs of Increased Skull Pressure Signs of Increased Skull Pressure Decreasing mental status or altered responsiveness. Combativeness and erratic behavior. Nausea and/or vomiting. Pupils that are not equal or reactive to light. Double vision or other visual disturbances. Headache, sometimes severe. Loss of memory, confusion, or disorientation. Weakness or loss of balance. Seizures. Evidence of trauma to the head.  Slow heart rate. Irregular breathing pattern. 3
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First Aid for Brain Injury First Aid for Brain Injury 1. Suspect spine injury in any victim with suspected brain injury; stabilize the head and neck as described later in this chapter. 2. Establish and monitor the victim’s ABCDs; ensure the airway is open, provide rescue breathing if the breathing is inadequate. 3. Anticipate vomiting; be prepared to keep the victim’s head and neck stabilized as you roll the victim on his or her side to prevent aspiration. 4. Treat the victim for shock; keep the victim warm, but  do not elevate the legs. 4
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Types of Skull Fracture Types of Skull Fracture Four basic types:  1.  Depressed —An object strikes the skull, leaving an obvious  depression or deformity; bone fragments are often driven  into the membranes or the brain itself by the force of the  impact. 2.  Linear —The most common type of skull fracture, a linear  fracture causes a thin-line crack in the skull. Linear fractures  are the least serious and the most difficult to detect. 3.  Comminuted —A comminuted fracture appears at the point  of impact, with multiple cracks radiating from the center (it  looks like a cracked eggshell). 4. 
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CH_13student - Ch.13HeadandSpineInjuries...

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