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Unformatted text preview: Ch. 16-Cardiovascular and Stroke Emergencies 1 Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease A condition in which a coronary artery has been damaged Atherosclerosis A condition in which fatty substances and other debris are deposited on the arterial walls Arteriosclerosis A disease condition in which the arteries lose their elasticity Plaque Fatty deposits on the arterial walls 2 Cardiovascular Disease Disease that involves the heart or blood vessels. Includes heart attacks, stroke, and arterial disease. Kills over 910,000 Americans every year 480,000 of those are women Kills more women than all forms of cancer combined 3 Vocabulary Angina pectoris Chest pain caused when the heart’s need for oxygen is not met Pulmonary edema A condition in which plasma seeps out of the capillaries into the lungs as a result of pressure from a failing heart Myocardium The heart muscle Myocardial infarction Heart attack, death of heart tissue when the blood supply is restricted or cut off Silent myocardial infarction A heart attack that does not cause chest pain 4 Angina Pectoris Symptoms Dyspnea (shortness of breath) Profuse perspiration Lightheadedness Palpitations Nausea and/or vomiting Pale, cool, moist skin 5 Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms Pulmonary edema Wheezing Profuse sweating Rapid heart rate Increased respiratory rate with fast, labored breathing Paleness or cyanosis Difficulty breathing while lying flat Swelling of the feet and lower legs
6 Myocardial Infarction Symptoms Shortness of breath Profuse sweating Cold sweat Cyanosis Nausea and/or vomiting Weakness Lightheadedness Anxiety Feeling of impending doom Pulse could be slow or fast 7 Fainting Myocardial Infarction Symptoms cont. Chest pain/ discomfort that lasts for more than a few minutes. May go away and come back. Could feel like an uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, squeezing, or fullness Pain or discomfort in one or both arms, jaw, neck, or stomach 8 Myocardial Infarction Symptoms in Women
Women have more unusual symptoms: Shortness of breath Nausea/ vomiting Back or jaw pain 9 First Aid Care First Aid Care—Responsive Victim 1. Activate EMS 2. Monitor vital signs continuously 3. If the victim has physicianprescribed nitroglycerin, help the victim take one dose of the medication 4. Don’t let the victim move on his or her own, place them in sitting position 5. Loosen restrictive clothing at the neck and midriff, and keep the victim warm, but do not overheat 6. Be prepared to start CPR if needed 7. Have an AED on hand 8. Aspirin? 10 10 Nitroglycerin Treatment
If you are authorized to help the victim: 1. Take the victim’s blood pressure 2. Verify that you have the right victim, the right medication, and that the victim is alert and responsive 3. Check the expiration date on the victim’s prescription to verify that the medication is still potent 4. Ask the victim to lift his or her tongue; wearing latex gloves, place the tablet or spray under the tongue 5. Have the victim keep his or her mouth closed (without swallowing) until the tablet has dissolved and been absorbed by the tissues under the tongue. 6. Within 2 minutes, check the victim’s blood pressure; perform a reassessment
11 11 Heart Attack Survival Have to prevent death of heart tissue Depends on prompt treatmentwith thrombolytics and other medications First 36 hours are crucial 12 12 Heart Attack vs. Anxiety Attack
Anxiety Attack or Panic Attack: Causes racing heartbeat Often pressure or pain is absent Can usually self regulate breathing *When in doubt get medical help* 13 13 Stroke
Also called Cerebrovascular Accident or CVA Loss of brain functioning due to an interruption in the blood supply to the brain Brain tissue dies from lack of oxygen Some agencies promote term brain attack 14 14 Causes of Stroke Thrombus formation of blood clot with in blood vessel Embolus object migrates from one part of the body and forms an obstruction somewhere else (clot, air, pus etc…) Hemorrhage technical term for bleeding Compression 15 15 Signs and Symptoms of a Stroke Confusion, disorientation, trouble speaking or understanding Trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination Numbness or weakness of face, arms, or legs especially on one side of the body Headache that is sudden, severe Flushed or pale face Respiratory distress Trouble seeing in one or both eyes Constricted pupils, or pupils unequal in size or reaction Loss of bowel or bladder control Nausea and/or vomiting
16 16 17 17 First Aid Care for Stroke
1. Handle the victim calmly and carefully 2. If the victim is conscious, position him or her on the back with the head and shoulders slightly raised 3. Assess airway and respiration 4. If the victim develops difficulty breathing or becomes unconscious, turn him or her on the side with the paralyzed side down and well cushioned. 5. Keep the victim warm, but don’t overheat 6. Keep the victim quiet and shielded from onlookers 7. Never give the victim anything to eat or drink 18 18 Stroke Survival Survival depends on receiving prompt treatment. Goal is to clear blockage, restore blood flow as quickly as possible. Need medicine within 3 hours to stop damage. 19 19 Stroke vs. Central Vertigo
Vertigo: may have a cause or precipitating event such as an accident or seizure Use the smile test *When in doubt get medical help* 20 20 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course HK 280 taught by Professor Trembath during the Fall '07 term at Purdue University.
- Fall '07