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Unformatted text preview: Who Rules the United States? States?
Friday, October 26 The Functionalist Perspective The Political structures rise out of the needs of social Political groups groups Protection from outside groups Protection from others within the group Keep order Functionalists believe that governments are necessary Functionalists for maintaining order in society for Anarchy is a “condition of disorder and violence” How does this contrast with anarchists’ beliefs about human How nature? nature? The Functionalist Perspective The What keeps the U.S. government from turning What against its citizens? against Pluralism – a diffusion of power among many Pluralism special-interest groups special-interest Checks and balances – separation of government Checks into three branches into
Executive (president) Judiciary (courts) Legislative (senate and house of representatives) The Functionalist Perspective The Since the United States is a democracy, all groups Since have power through voting have Politicians try to please as many groups as possible in Politicians order to get the most votes order No one group dominates, since groups must negotiate No and compromise with one another in order to attain their goals their The conflict theorist asks: But doesn’t group size and control of resources (money, But information) give some groups more power than others? others? The Conflict Perspective The The Conflict Perspective The The Power Elite (ruling class) – the top leaders The in: in: Corporations Military Politics According to Mills, the corporations have the According most power most The Economy The An economy is a system of producing and An distributing goods and services distributing Forms of economy have changed over time Forms and place and The two main economies in use today are The capitalism and socialism capitalism A Brief History of Economy Brief
Hunting and gathering societies – subsistence economy, in which there is no excess to trade. The onset of agriculture, and later the plow, allowed The for people to settle in one place. Agricultural societies, surplus, and inequality Agricultural Not everyone had to get their own food anymore, Not which freed up individuals to focus on other things which Division of labor – different people do different Division things, exchanging commodities Surplus Surplus Social inequality A Brief History of Economy Brief
Industrial Societies – the steam engine, Industrial machinery, and factories change things again machinery, Focus shifts from production of goods to Focus production consumption of goods consumption Capitalism begins in full force, with trade and Capitalism bartering giving way to paychecks and money bartering Social inequality increases, Marx writes the Social Communist Manifesto Communist A Brief History of Economy Brief
Postindustrial Societies – according to Bell, this society Postindustrial has six characteristics: has 1. Majority of people work in service sector 2. Vast surplus of goods 3. Extensive trade among nations 4. Huge variety and quantity of goods available 5. Information explosion 6. “Global Village” – linking of nations via Global communication, transportation, and trade communication, Capitalism Capitalism Three essential features:
1. 2. 3. Private ownership of the means of production Market competition Pursuit of profit 1. 2. Two types of capitalism: Laissez-faire Welfare/state
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KiItO6jjduw Socialism Socialism Three essential features:
1. 2. 3. Public ownership of the means of production Central planning Distribution of goods without profit motive “pure” socialism Democratic/welfare socialism Two types of socialism: Two Economies Based on Opposing Belief Systems Belief Socialists believe capitalism is oppressive Socialists because it creates inequality Capitalists believe socialism is oppressive Capitalists because it inhibits individual achievement Socialists believe that profit is immoral Capitalists believe that profit is a necessary Capitalists motivator for individual achievement Profit Profit Profit is net value: after you account for production Profit costs, including paying your workers, whatever is left over is PROFIT. Those who own the means of production will try to Those increase their profit. One way to make profit by paying the workers as One little as you can get away with little Socialists believe the way to fix this is to centralize Socialists industry in the hands of the government, who will NOT be motivated by profit NOT Capitalists believe the way to fix this is to allow for Capitalists MARKET COMPETITION MARKET ...
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- Fall '08