loco - 10/4/10
 Locomo*on
 Locomo*on
 •  • ...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/4/10
 Locomo*on
 Locomo*on
 •  •  •  •  Kicking
 Bouncing
 Prone
Locomo*on
 Upright
Locomo*on
 Understanding
Self
 1
 10/4/10
 Understanding
Self
 Mobile
Experiments
 Mobile
Experiments
 •  Rate
of
kicking
as
a
 dependent
measure
 2
 10/4/10
 Spontaneous
Kicking
 •  Flexion
phase
and
 extension
phase
 •  Extension
phase
longer
 than
the
flexion
phase
 •  Organized;
joints
 produce
a
coordinated
 paLern!
 Spontaneous
Kicking


 Organized
Bouncing
 •  Bounce:
up
and
down
 •  Bout:
a
con*nuous
 series
of
bounces
 •  Bounce
Amplitude:
 displacement
between
 minimum
and
 maximum
ver*cal
 displacement
 Jolly
Jumper
 Novice
Jolly
Jumper
 3
 10/4/10
 Novice
Jolly
Jumper
 •  Infant
starts
out
by
exploring
through
their
 spontaneous
ac*vity

ini*al
explora*on
 reveals
that
kicking
produces
entertaining
 effects!!!
 •  Assembly
phase:
early
phase
characterized
by
 sporadic,
irregular
kicking
without
sustained
 bouncing.


 Expert
Jolly
Jumper
 Expert
Jolly
Jumper
 •  Tuning
Phase:
more
periodic
kicking
during
 which
forcing
frequency
and
leg
s*ffness
vary,
 yielding
high
variability

in
period
 •  Sustained
Bouncing
Phase
 –  Energy
efficient
 •  Increase
in
Bout
Length
 •  Increase
in
Amplitude
 4
 10/4/10
 Spontaneous
Kicking


 Organized
Bouncing
 •  Infants
have
to
match
 their
legs’
s*ffness/ springiness
with
that
of
 the
spring
holding
the
 jolly
jumper
infant
 achieves
maximum
 amplitude
for
minimum
 force

 Jolly
Jumper
 Locomo*on
 •  Why
is
independent
mobility
important?
 Locomo*on
 Crawling
as
the
“psychological
birth
of
the
 
human
infant”
(Campos,
2000)
 5
 10/4/10
 Locomo*on
 •  Mother’s
view
on
changes
in
their
infants
 behavior
and
in
their
own
behavior
at
onset
of
 infant
crawling
 Changes
in
the
infant
 Changes
in
the
mother
 6
 10/4/10
 Studying
Locomo*on
 •  Classical
Approaches
 •  Contemporary
Approaches
 Classical
Approaches
 •  Mary
Shirley,
Myrtle
McGraw,
Arnold
Gesell
 •  Created
detailed,
norma*ve
descrip*ons
of
 locomotor
development
(Motor
Milestones)
 •  Emphasis
on
neuromuscular
matura*on
as
the
 agent
of
developmental
change
 •  Capturing
motor
ac*ons
in
real
*me
 Contemporary
Approaches
 •  Esther
Thelen,
Eleanor
Gibson
 •  Availability
of
new
mo*on
recording
 techniques
 •  New
theories:
Mul*ple
factors!
 –  Percep*on‐Ac*on
Theory
 –  Dynamic
Systems
Theory
 7
 10/4/10
 Dynamic
Systems
Theory
 Posture
and
Locomo*on
 •  Regions
of
permissible
sway
 •  Dynamic
Balance
 –  Keeping
the
body
in
equilibrium
against
gravity
 while
the
body
is
in
mo*on
(as
in
crawling
or
 walking)
 •  Difficult
problem
to
stay
balanced
while
 walking

 Problems
star*ng
walking
sequence
 8
 10/4/10
 Problems
stopping
walking
sequence
 Prewalking
Movements
 •  Crawling
 •  Creeping
 •  Locomo*ng
with
hands
held
or
supported
by
 furniture
(cruising)
 •  Major
limita*on
 –  The
hands
are
required
to
move
 –  Child
cannot
explore
the
environment
 9
 10/4/10
 •  Highly
variable
at
first
 –  Mul*ple
crawling
postures
are
onen
exhibited
in
the
 development
of
crawling/creeping.
 –  50%
show
belly
crawl
before
creeping
 –  Can
skip
crawling
(belly)
and
proceed
directly
to
 creeping
(hands/knees).

 –  Infants
who
belly
crawl
show
an
advantage
in
 proficiency
compared
with
infants
who
skip
belly
 crawling.
 •  Take
larger,
faster
steps
 •  Advantage
persists
for
several
weeks
 Cruising/
Walking
with
support
 10
 10/4/10
 Walking
 •  Characterized
by
a
progressive
altera*on
of
 leading
legs
and
con*nuous
contact
with
the
 support
surface
 •  Gait
cycle

or
walking
cycle–
distance
covered
 by
two
heel
strikes
of
the
same
foot
 Walking
 11
 10/4/10
 Walking:
 Phases
of
Gait
Cycle
 •  Swing
phase
 –  Begins
when
foot
of
one
leg
leaves
support
surface
 –  Ends
when
foot
touches
surface
 •  Support
phase
 –  Time
when
balance
is
maintained
on
one
foot
 –  Right
foot
in
swing
phase
while
len
foot
is
in
support
phase
 •  Double
support
phase
 –  When
both
feet
are
in
contact
with
the
ground
 12
 ...
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