loco3 - 10/6/10
 Locomo*on
con*nued….
...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/6/10
 Locomo*on
con*nued….
 Upright
Locomo*on
 Walking
 Walking:
 Phases
of
Gait
Cycle
 •  Swing
phase
 –  Begins
when
foot
of
one
leg
leaves
support
surface
 –  Ends
when
foot
touches
surface
 •  Support
phase
 –  Time
when
balance
is
maintained
on
one
foot
 –  Right
foot
in
swing
phase
while
leJ
foot
is
in
support
phase
 •  Double
support
phase
 –  When
both
feet
are
in
contact
with
the
ground
 1
 10/6/10
 Walking
 •  Independent
walking
requires
 –  Sufficient
balance
control
 –  Matura*on
of
the
CNS
 –  Leg
strength;
Increased
muscle
to
fat
ra*o
(Body
 Changes)
 An
Infant’s
First
Steps
 •  Ini*al
walking
paXerns
in
the
infant
are
 designed
to
foster
equilibrium
 •  Sacrifice
mobility
for
stability
 An
Infant's
First
Steps
 •  •  •  •  •  •  Short,
quick,
rigid
steps
 Toes
point
outward
 Use
of
wide
base
of
support
 Flat‐footed
contact
with
floor
 Arms
in
high‐guard
posi*on
 Arms
are
rigid
 –  Arms
are
not
swung
freely
in
opposi*on
to
legs
 2
 10/6/10
 Early
Walking
Characteris*cs
 High
Guard
Posi*on
 Wide
B.O.S
 As
walking
develops….
 •  Step
length:
distance
between
 consecu*ve
steps
 •  Step
width:
lateral
distance
 between
steps
 •  Foot
rota*on:
intoeing /
ouXoeing
 •  Velocity:
distance/*me
 •  Swing
*me:
%
of
gait
cycle
with
 one
foot
moving
through
the
air
 •  Double
support:
%
of
gait
cycle
 that
both
feet
are
on
the
floor
 •  Ver*cal
accelera*on
of
the
center
 of
mass:
rate
of
change
in
velocity
 of
the
COM
along
the
ver*cal
axis
 Development
of
walking
 3
 10/6/10
 Advanced
Upright
Locomo*on
 •  Running
 •  Galloping
 •  Hopping
 Running
 •  Next
locomotor
skill
to
 emerge
aJer
walking
 •  Flight
phase:
neither
leg
 is
in
contact
with
the
 ground
 •  Emerges
around
2.5
to
6‐ months
aJer
onset
of
 walking
 Flight phase Running
 •  Why
does
running
emerge
so
soon
aJer
 walking?
 •  Why
don’t
walking
and
running
occur
 simultaneously?
 4
 10/6/10
 Running
~
Requirements
 •  Adequate
lower
limb
strength
to
propel
body
 through
air
 •  Adequate
lower
limb
strength
to
handle
the
 addi*onal
force
encountered
when
the
 airborne
foot
strikes
the
suppor*ng
surface
 •  Improved
motor
coordina*on
to
control
the
 moving
legs
 Running

 •  Immature
running
is
similar
to
immature
 walking
 –  Wide
base
of
support
 –  Arms
held
in
high
guard
posi*on
 –  Flat‐footed
contact
with
floor
 Immature
Running
 5
 10/6/10
 Running
~
PaXern
 •  Phases
 –  Support
 –  Flight


 –  Recovery
 •  Arm
ac*on
is
important
 Running
~
Support
Phase
 •  The
leg

 –  Absorbs
the
impact
of
the
striking
foot
 –  Supports
the
body
 –  Maintains
forward
mo*on
while
accelera*ng
the
 body’s
COG

 –  Provides
thrust
to
propel
the
body
forward
 •  Inexperienced
runners
run
flaiooted
 Running
~
Flight
Phase
 •  Body
is
thrust
into
the
air
by
a
vigorous
 extension
of
the
support
leg
 •  Hip,
knee,
and
ankle
are
required
for
full
 extension
and
to
generate
maximum
thrust
 •  Immature
runner
unable
to
project
body
 through
space
 –  Does
not
use
thrust
leg
 6
 10/6/10
 Running
~
Recovery
Phase
 •  Back
leg
is
brought
forward
quickly
 •  Experienced
runners
flex
the
knee
so
the
 recovery
foot
comes
close
to
hilng
the
 buXocks
 •  Inexperienced
runners
have
very
liXle
knee
 and
hip
flexion
 –  May
cause
child
to
stumble
 –  Inadequate
clearance
between
foot
and
ground
 Running
~
Arm
Ac*on
 •  Immature
Running 

 –  Arms
are
flexed
and
held
in
high
guard
posi*on
 •  Intermediate
Running
 –  Arms
are
lowered
and
hang
free,
but
do
not
help
with
 running
speed
(by
working
in
opposi*on
to
the
legs);
arms
 swing
across
midline
of
body
 •  Experienced
Running
 –  Arms
are
in
opposi*on
to
legs,
elbows
flexed
at
900,
 vigorous
pumping
ac*on
toward
(not
across)
midline
 Stage 1 Stages
of
Running
 Stage 2 Stage 3 7
 10/6/10
 Around
Stage
2
 Stage
3
 Gallop
 •  New
asymmetrical
paXern
of
interlimb
 coordina*on
 –  A
walk
with
one
limb
and
a
run
with
the
other
limb
 •  A
forward
step
followed
by
a
leap
onto
the
 trailing
foot
 •  Same
leg
always
leads
 •  Performed
in
a
front‐facing
direc*on
 •  Emerges
around
age
2
years
(6‐months
or
more
 following
running)
and
develops
over
several
 years
 8
 10/6/10
 Mature
Gallop

 Early/Immature
Gallop
 Early/Immature
Gallop
 9
 10/6/10
 Early
Galloping
 Two‐Footed
Ver*cal
Jump
 •  Mature
 –  Knees
bend/arms
lowered
(prelim
crouch)
 –  Knees
straighten,
arms
swing
upward
 –  Body
stretches
and
extends
ver*cally
 –  Landing
on
balls
of
feet,
with
knees
flexed
to
absorb
 impact
 •  Novice
 –  Minimal
prelim
crouch
 –  Arms
fixed
at
middle
or
high‐guard
posi*on
 –  Slight
forward
lean
at
takeoff
 Two‐Footed
Ver*cal
Jump
 10
 10/6/10
 Hopping
 •  A
form
of
jumping
 •  One
foot
is
used
to
project
the
body
into
 space
with
landing
on
the
same
foot
 •  More
difficult
than
the
two‐footed
jump
 Hopping
 •  Requires
addi*onal
strength
and
beXer
 balance
 •  Performed
beXer
on
preferred
foot
 •  Girls
are
approximately
6
months
advanced
 compared
to
boys
 •  Very
few
children
are
able
to
exhibit
a
mature
 hopping
paXern
by
age
5
yr
 Mature
Hopping
 •  •  •  •  En*re
nonsupport
leg
swings
back
and
forth
to
aid
in
force
produc*on
 The
arms
are
carried
close
to
the
body,
elbow
at
900
 Nonsupport
leg
increases
force
produc*on,
so
arm
use
decreases
 Extension
of
propelling
leg
 Stage 4 Age at which 60% of boys and girls are able to perform at a specific level 11
 10/6/10
 Mature
Hopping
 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Early
Hopping
 12
 10/6/10
 Early
Hopping
 Advanced
Upright
Locomo*on
 •  Improvements
in
controlling
balance
 •  Genera*ng
necessary
forces
 •  Spa*al‐temporal
*ming
(interlimb
 coordina*on)
 13
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course HK 453 taught by Professor Claxton during the Fall '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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