pad - 11/3/10
 Visual‐Motor
Coordina4on
 • 

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Unformatted text preview: 11/3/10
 Visual‐Motor
Coordina4on
 •  Ability
to
coordinate
visual
abili4es
with
 movements
of
the
body
 •  Coincident
4ming
 –  Ability
to
4me
self‐movements
with
an
object
 Catching

 •  The
ac4on
of
bringing
an
airborne
object
 under
control
by
using
the
hands
and
 arms
 Developmental
Aspects:


 Two‐handed
Catching
 •  First
aFempt
to
stop
a
rolling
object
is
to
sit
on
 floor
with
legs
spread
apart
 –  Legs
trap
ball
 –  Hands
trap
ball
 •  First
aFempt
at
an
airborne
object
is
passive
 –  Tosser
throws
ball
so
the
child
can
use
the
 outstretched
arms
and
body
to
catch
 1
 11/3/10
 Developmental
Aspects:


 Two‐handed
Catching
 2-year-old • Focuses on the tosser, not the ball • Maintains a static position • Reacts too late 5-year-old • Can anticipate some of the ball’s changing flight pattern • Can focus on thrower, ball, and own hands •  Movements are correct, but are carried out in slow motion 15-year-old • Can predict the ball’s flight • Carries out preparatory sequences to catch the ball • Movements are smooth (Kay,
1970)
 Young
Catcher
 Novice
Catcher
 2
 11/3/10
 Proficient
Catcher
 Two‐handed
Catching:
 Fear
Reac4on
(Seefeldt,
1972)
 3
 11/3/10
 Factors
influencing
catching
 •  •  •  •  •  Size
of
ball
 Speed
of
ball
 Throwing
distance
 Trajectory
of
the
ball
 Ball
color
and
background
combina4on
 Striking

 •  A
fundamental
movement
in
which
a
 designated
body
part
or
some
implement
is
 used
to
project
an
object
 Developmental
Aspects
of

 One‐and
Two‐handed
Striking
 •  Child
faces
the
object
to
be
struck
 •  May
or
may
not
take
a
forward
step
with
homolateral
 leg
 •  Striking
movements
occur
in
anterior‐posterior
plane
 4
 11/3/10
 Developmental
Aspects
of

 One‐and
Two‐handed
Striking
 •  Experienced
striker
 – Forward
step
with
opposite
foot
taken
 – Full
backswing
 – Swings
implement
horizontally
 – Trunk
and
hip
rota4on
 – Coordinated
wrist
snap
 Developmental
Aspects
of
Striking
 •  Mature
paFern
around
5‐years
of
age
 •  Ability
to
consistently
INTERCEPT
a
moving
 object
as
more
difficult;
con4nues
to
improve
 through
the
late
elementary
years
(ages
10
to
 12).


 Striking
 •  Can
you
pitch
a
ball
too
slow
to
young
 children?
 5
 11/3/10
 Developmental
Motor
Disorders
 Cerebral
Palsy
 Defini4on
 •  Group
of
disabili4es
 •  Most
common
and
most
severe
of
the
 childhood
motor
disorders
 •  Non‐progressive
disorders
of
movement
or
 posture
that
originate
in
early
childhood
 •  Occurs
as
a
result
of
interference
with
or
a
 defect
of
the
developing
brain
 Occurrence
 •  2
per
1,000
births
 •  Infants
born
very
preterm
or
with
a
very
low
 birth
weight
are
at
a
much
greater
risk
than
 others
of
developing
CP
 6
 11/3/10
 Possible
Causes
of
CP
 •  •  •  •  Asphyxia
and
birth
trauma
 Injury
during
delivery
 Preterm
birth
 Maternal
factors
 Diagnosing
 •  At
birth
ofen
not
possible
to
iden4fy
infants
 with
mild
to
moderate
CP.
 •  As
they
grow
older,
the
motor
problems
 become
more
obvious.

 Iden4fying
CP
in
the
Early
Years
 •  Some
children
may
not
be
diagnosed
un4l
3
or
 4
years
of
age
 •  Mild
or
moderate
cases
may
not
be
iden4fied
 un4l
the
child
is
older
 •  If
an
infant
is
diagnosed
in
the
first
year,
this
 ofen
means
that
the
case
is
a
severe
one
with
 major
motor
disability
 7
 11/3/10
 Typical
Early
Motor
Problems
 •  Arms
affected
 •  Lower
limbs
affected
 •  Early
motor
problems

later
development
 Categories
of
Cerebral
Palsy
 •  Severity
(mild,
moderate,
severe)
 •  Movement
type
 •  Affected
body
part/parts
 8
 11/3/10
 Categories
of
Cerebral
Palsy:
 By
Affected
Body
Part
 •  Monoplegia
 •  Hemiplegia
 •  Paraplegia
 •  Quadriplegia
 •  Diplegia
 Categories
of
Cerebral
Palsy:
 By
movement
type
 •  Spas4city
 •  Ataxia
 •  Dyskinesia
 •  Hypotonia
 Spas4city
 •  Rigidity
 •  Occurs
as
a
result
of
hypertonia
 •  May
be
fixed
in
a
few
specific
paFerns
as
a
 result
of
the
strong
co‐contrac4on
of
muscles
 •  Tied
with
damage
involving
the
motor
por4on
 of
the
cerebral
cortex
 9
 11/3/10
 Ataxia
 •  Excessive
uncoordina4on
and
difficulty
with
 balance
 •  Linked
with
cerebellar
damage
 •  Arms:
overreaching
and
underreaching
 •  Difficulty
tracking
visual
objects
 •  Delayed
motor
milestones
 Dyskinesia
 •  Purposeless
movements
that
occur
doing
 voli4onal
movements
 •  Movement
disrupted
by
changing
tone
 (increasing
or
decreasing
muscle
tone)
 Hypotonia
 •  decreased
muscle
tone
 •  Sof
and
floppy
muscles
that
usually
result
in
 increased
joint
range
 10
 11/3/10
 Spas4c
Hemiplegia
 •  Found
in
20%
to
40%
of
CP
cases
 •  Lesions
of
the
sensorimotor
cortex
and
 cor4cospinal
tract
 •  Learning
difficul4es
 •  Seizures
 Spas4c
Hemiplegia:
 Motor
Difficul4es
 •  Right
side
of
the
body
affected
more
than
the
 lef
 •  Asymmetrical
gait
 •  Early
motor
difficul4es
 Spas4c
and
Ataxia
Diplegia
 •  Most
common
forms
of
CP
(41%
of
cases)
 •  Mainly
involving
the
hips
and
legs
 •  Damage
to
the
motor
fibers
to
the
lower
limbs
 11
 11/3/10
 Spas4c
and
Ataxia
Diplegia:
 Motor
Difficul4es
 •  Difficulty
sikng

 •  Gait
is
characterized
by
excessive
mobility
 through
the
head,
neck,
upper
trunk,
and
 upper
extremi4es
in
order
to
compensate
for
 the
poor
mobility
in
the
lower
body
 Tetraplegia
 •  Also
termed
spas4c
quadriplegia
or
bilateral
 hemiplegia
 •  Most
severe
form
of
CP;
occurs
in
only
5%
of
 cases
 •  Cause
unknown
 •  Involves
the
whole
body
 •  Significant
problems
with
feeding
 •  Absence
of
speech
due
to
oral
difficul4es
 •  Epilepsy
and
severe
mental
retarda4on
 12
 ...
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