fielding - High-Velocity Resistance Training Increases...

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JAGS 50:655–662, 2002 © 2002 by the American Geriatrics Society 0002-8614/02/$15.00 High-Velocity Resistance Training Increases Skeletal Muscle Peak Power in Older Women Roger A. Fielding, PhD,* Nathan K. LeBrasseur, MSPT,* Anthony Cuoco, MS,* Jonathan Bean, MD, MS, Kelly Mizer, BS,* and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh, MD OBJECTIVES: Peak power declines more precipitously than strength with advancing age and is a reliable measure of impairment and a strong predictor of functional perfor- mance. We tested the hypothesis that a high-velocity resis- tance-training program (HI) would increase muscle power more than a traditional low-velocity resistance-training program (LO). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: University-based human physiology laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty women with self-reported dis- ability (aged 73 6 1, body mass index 30.1 6 1.1 kg/m 2 ). INTERVENTION: We conducted a randomized trial comparing changes in skeletal muscle power and strength after 16 weeks of HI or LO. Training was performed three times per week, and subjects completed three sets (8–10 repetitions) of leg press (LP) and knee extension (KE) exer- cises at 70% of the one-repetition maximum (1RM). MEASUREMENTS: One-repetition maximum (1RM) and peak power for KE and LP. RESULTS: LP and KE relative training force and total work were similar between groups ( P . .05). However, HI generated significantly higher power during training sessions than LO for LP (3.7-fold greater, P , .001) and KE (2.1-fold greater, P , .001). Although LP and KE 1RM muscle strength increased similarly in both groups as a result of the training ( P , .001), LP peak power in- creased significantly more in HI than in LO (267 W vs 139 W, P , .001). Furthermore, HI resulted in a significantly greater improvement in LP power at 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% of the 1RM than did LO ( P , .05). CONCLUSIONS: HI improved 1RM strength similarly and was more effective in improving peak power than was traditional LO in older women. Improvements in lower extremity peak power may exert a greater influence on age-associated reductions in physical functioning than other exercise interventions. J Am Geriatr Soc 50:655– 662, 2002. Key words: exercise; aging; power training keletal muscle strength, or the maximum capacity to generate force, declines with advancing age after the fifth decade of life. 1 A progressive loss in muscle mass, or sarcopenia, due to reductions in the number and size of muscle fibers, 2 contractile velocity, and muscle quality (de- clines in single-fiber diameter, peak force, and maximum shortening velocity), 3 appears to contribute to this phe- nomenon. Peak skeletal muscle power, the product of the force and velocity of muscle shortening, declines earlier and more precipitously than strength with advancing age. 4
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course HK 490 taught by Professor Reidtky during the Fall '10 term at Purdue.

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fielding - High-Velocity Resistance Training Increases...

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