17pd - Postural
Control
and
Postural
...

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Unformatted text preview: 4/5/10 Postural
Control
and
Postural
 Development
 Postural
Control
 •  Maintaining
balance
 •  Stable
when
the
body’s
center
of
mass
is
 within
the
base
of
support
 1 4/5/10 Role
of
Postural
Control
 •  Func?onal
skills
that
require
postural
control
 –  SiBng
 –  Standing
 –  Walking
 –  Reaching
 Measuring
postural
stability
 •  Force
Plate
and
Kinema?c
cameras
 –  measures
the
amt
of
postural
sway

 –  anterior‐posterior
and
medial‐lateral
direc?on
 Typical interpretation • When standing more sway = less postural stability 2 4/5/10 Measuring
postural
stability
 cont.
 •  EMG
 –  Looking
at
how
fast
the
postural
muscles
fire
in
 response
to
a
perturba?on.
 Typical interpretation • Slower muscle responses = less postural stability Factors
that
influence
postural
stability
 •  Muscle
strength
 •  Neural
integrity
 •  Skeletal
health
 •  Sensory
Acuity
 •  Cogni?ve
ability
 3 4/5/10 Ankle,
hip,
and
stepping
strategy
 to
maintain
balance
 Hip
and
Ankle
Strategy
 Sensory
systems
 •  Ves?bular
 •  Visual
 •  Propriocep?ve
 4 4/5/10 Sensory
influences
on
posture
 Sensory
influences
on
posture
 Sensory
Manipula?ons
&Postural
Control
 •  Vision
(ACCURATE)
 •  Ves?bular
(ACCURATE)
 •  Propriocep?ve
(ACCURATE)
 5 4/5/10 Sensory
Manipula?ons
&Postural
Control
 •  Vision
(MISSING)
 •  Ves?bular
(ACCURATE)
 •  Propriocep?ve
(ACCURATE)
 Sensory
Manipula?ons
&Postural
Control
 •  Vision
(INACCURATE)
 •  Ves?bular
(ACCURATE)
 •  Propriocep?ve
(ACCURATE)
 Sensory
Manipula?ons
&Postural
Control
 •  Vision
(ACCURATE)
 •  Ves?bular
(ACCURATE)
 •  Propriocep?ve
(INACCURATE)
 6 4/5/10 Sensory
Manipula?ons
&Postural
Control
 •  Vision
(MISSING)
 •  Ves?bular
(ACCURATE)
 •  Propriocep?ve
(INACCURATE)
 Sensory
Manipula?ons
&Postural
Control
 •  Vision
(INACCURATE)
 •  Ves?bular
(ACCURATE)
 •  Propriocep?ve
(INACCURATE)
 Anticipatory postural control 17.4 7 4/5/10 Development
of
posture
in
children
 •  necessary
for
the
development
of
the
 motor
milestones
(e.g.,
reaching,
crawling,
 walking)
 Body
Propor?ons
and
Balance 
 •  Stability
(balance)
is
a
problem
for
young
 children
due
to
their
higher
center
of
gravity
 and
small
base
of
support
 Changes
in
Body
Propor?ons
 with
Age 
 8 4/5/10 Development
of
posture
in
children
 •  3
main
areas
of
study
 – an?cipatory
postural
responses

 – correc?ve
postural
strategies
 – role
of
vision
and
the
other
senses
in
 posture
and
balance
 An?cipatory
postural
development
 anticipatory postural responses by 4 months of age Development
of
correc?ve
postural
strategies
 •  not adult like until after 7 years of age 9 4/5/10 Correc?ve
strategies
in
children
 Unorganized muscle responses even at 5 years of age Correc?ve
strategies
in
children
 More adult like by 7 years of age Development
of
the
senses
and
posture
 •  How does vision influence postural control? •  At a young age, vision mapped to postural responses. •  Young children (4 to 6-year-olds) are more visually dominant than adults 10 4/5/10 •  Moving
room
paradigm
 –  Young
children
(and
infants)
respond
to
the
moving
room
 Aging
and
Postural
Control
 •  In
1996,
14,000
deaths
and
22
million
medical
visits
 resulted
from
falls.
 •  The
incidence
of
fall‐related
injuriesis
predicted
to
 drama?cally
increase
as
the
number
of
seniors
 con?nues
to
grow.
 •  Therefore,
there
has
been
a
large
increase
in
 research
examining
falls
in
the
elderly.
 11 4/5/10 Postural
control
and
aging
 Causes
of
Falling
 •  One
Factor
vs.
Mul?ple
Factors?
 •  Mul?ple
Factors!!
 –  Muscular
 –  Skeletal
 –  Psychological
 –  Environmental
 Risk
factors
of
falling
 •  Age

 –  aeer
age
65
 •  Sex

 –  women
more
likely
to
fall
than
men
 •  Psychological
factors
 –  Depression
 –  Anxiety
(such
as
fear
of
falling)
 –  Living
alone
(taking
fewer
trips
away
from
your
house)
 12 4/5/10 Risk
factors
of
falling
 •  Many
Environmental
Factors
including…
 –  Stairs
 –  Throw
rugs
 –  Slippery
surfaces
 –  Poor
ligh?ng
 Risk
factors
of
falling
 •  Many
physiological
factors
including…
 –  Reduced
physical
ac?vity
 –  Reduced
muscle
strength
 –  Reduced
postural
stability
when
standing
 –  Arthri?s
in
the
knees
 –  People
who
previously
suffered
a
stroke
 –  Walking
impairments
 –  The
use
of
psychotropic
drugs
 13 ...
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