early - 2/24/10 Early
S(mula(on
and
Depriva(on 
...

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Unformatted text preview: 2/24/10 Early
S(mula(on
and
Depriva(on 
 con(nued… 
 Depriva(on
=
bad 
 Normal
=
good 
 Enrichment
≠
be<er 
 Programs
for
early
s(mula(on 
 •  Major
ques(on
s(ll
lacking
in
the
research
 literature.
 –  Can
early
programs
that
provide
cogni(ve
/
motor
 s(mula(on
make
a
superbaby?
 •  American
Academy
of
Pediatrics
recommends
 that
structured
programs
not
be
“promoted
as
 being
therapeu(cally
beneficial
for
the
 development
of
healthy
infants”
 Programs
offering
early
enrichment 
 •  Gymboree
 –  Their
claim:

 •  Preschoolers
need
to
be
provided
with
certain
types
of
play
ac(vi(es
 that
are
essen(al
in
development
but
not
available
at
home
 –  Birth
to
5.

 –  Claims:
improvements
in
balance,
gait,
motor
control
and
social
behavior
 –  Number
of
controlled
research
to
date
suppor3ng
posi3ve
claims
=
0
 1 2/24/10 Programs
offering
early
enrichment 
 •  Swim
lessons
 –  Some
programs
start
early.
 –  Children
not
ready
to
start
un(l
4‐5
years
of
age.
 –  Number
of
controlled
research
to
date
 suppor3ng
posi3ve
claims
=
0
 Programs
offering
early
enrichment 
 •  Head
start
programs
 –  Designed
to
give
financially
disadvantaged
 children
a
“head
start”
in
educa(on
 –  Head
start
children
be<er
cogni(ve,
social
and
 emo(onal
development.
 Bo<om
line
about
early
 enrichment 
 •  Normal
play
behavior
and
lots
of
contact
with
 parents
is
enough
for
child
to
develop
 normally.
 •  No
evidence
EXTRA
exposure
to
s(muli
will
 make
baby
superior,
especially
gross
motor
 behaviors.
 •  May
perhaps
help
a
bit
with
the
acquisi(on
of
 skilled
behaviors.
 2 2/24/10 Depriva(on
and
development 
 •  Depriva(on
can
have
horrible
impact
on
 normal
child
development.
 •  Twin
studies
done
in
early
to
mid
1900’s.
 –  Height
of
nature
v.
nurture
debates
 Co‐twin
Training
&
Depriva(on
 Studies 
 •  Johnny
&
Jimmy
(McGraw)
 –  Johnny
=
trained
 –  Jimmy
=
control;
deprived?
 –  Major
motor
milestones
reached
at
same
age.
 –  Johnny
be<er
skater,
swimmer,
jumper
and
be<er
social
skills.
 –  Jimmy,
despite
advanced
age
took
longer
to
master
the
skills.
 –  When
observed
at
6
and
10
y
ini(ally
trained
twin
s(ll
superior
in
motor
 performance
and
agility.
 Cradle
‐
Bound
Infants 
 •  Hopi
Indians
 –  infants
restrained
to
cradle
boards
un(l
9mo.
 –  onset
of
walking
no
later
than
unbound
infants.
 –  Raised
ques(ons
on
the
role
of
the
environment?
 3 2/24/10 Wayne
&
Marsena
Dennis
(1935,
 1938,
1951) 
 •  Del
&
Ray
(b/t
2‐14
mos)
 –  Crib‐bound,
supine
 –  No
social
 –  No
visual
 –  No
motor
 –  Food
&
sunlight
 Wayne
&
Marsena
Dennis
(1935,
 1938,
1951) 
 •  Results
misrepresented
in
texts.
 •  Real
outcomes:
 –  IQ
 –  Motor
development
 –  Rejected
by
families
 Summary
of
studies 
 •  Normal
development
is
a
mixture
of
nature
 and
nurture.
 •  Basic
movements
(walking)
more
gene(cally
 determined?
 •  Skilled
movements
not
as
predetermined?
 •  Depriva(on
can
have
horrible
consequences
 on
the
development
of
children
 4 2/24/10 Ins(tu(onalized
Children 
 Severe
depriva(on 
 Ins(tu(onalized
Children 
 •  Inferior
locomotor
development
 –  silng
alone
 –  creeping
 –  standing
 –  independent
walking
 •  Only
15%
could
walk
by
4yr
 •  Children
lag
behind
in
physical,
intellectual,
 emo(onal,
and
speech
development.
 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Adop(on
in
Romania…
 •  Condi(on
in
orphanages
 –  Not
enough
caretakers
 –  Not
enough
caretaking
 5 2/24/10 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Fall
of
communist
government
in
Romania.
 •  Start
of
the
early
interven(on
project.
 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Enough
$
for
71
foster
homes
 –  Guaranteed
no
return
to
orphanage
 •  Random
assignment
 –  Stay
in
orphanage
 –  Adopt
to
foster
home
 –  Community
controls
 6 2/24/10 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Enough
$
for
71
foster
homes
 –  Guaranteed
no
return
to
orphanage
 •  Random
assignment
 –  Stay
in
orphanage
 –  Adopt
to
foster
home
 –  Community
controls
 •  1st
experimental
adop(on
study
 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Experimental
adop(on
study
with
random
 assignment
to
orphanage
(horrible
life)
&
 foster
home
(chance
of
a
life)
 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Physical
growth
 7 2/24/10 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Physical
growth
 •  Bayley
Scales
of
Infant
Development
 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Physical
growth
 •  Bayley
Scales
of
Infant
Development
 •  Infant
Toddler
Social/Emo(onal
Assessment
 (ITSEA)
 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Physical
growth
 •  Bayley
Scales
of
Infant
Development
 •  Infant
Toddler
Social/Emo(onal
Assessment
 (ITSEA)
 •  Event‐related
poten(als
(ERP)
 8 2/24/10 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Physical
growth
 •  Bayley
Scales
of
Infant
Development
 •  Infant
Toddler
Social/Emo(onal
Assessment
 (ITSEA)
 •  Event‐related
poten(als
(ERP)
 •  Tests
at
baseline,
9,
18,
30,
42
mos
 Tes(ng
ERP 
 Bucharest
orphans:

How
old? 
 9 2/24/10 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Results
to
date
(ongoing
study)…
 –  At
birth…
 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Results
to
date
(ongoing
study)…
 –  At
birth…
 –  At
baseline…
 •  Physical
growth
 •  Bayley
 •  ITSEA
 •  ERP
 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Results
to
date
(ongoing
study)…
 –  At
birth…
 –  At
baseline…
 –  Aqer
adop(on…
 10 2/24/10 Bucharest
Early
Interven(on
Project
(2000
‐
present) 
 •  Results
to
date
(ongoing
study)…
 –  At
birth…
 –  At
baseline…
 –  Aqer
adop(on…
 –  Younger
the
age
at
adop(on,
be<er
the
score
 •  However,
NEVER
too
late
to
intervene.
 •  But…
 –  Cri(cal
or
sensi(ve
periods
are
important
in
the
 development
of
social,
cogni(ve
and
motor
skills.
 Perceptual
Development
 •  video
clip
 11 2/24/10 Sensa(on
 •  The
processing
of
basic
informa(on
from
the
 external
world
by
the
sensory
receptors
in
the
 sense
organs
(eyes,
ears,
skin,
etc.)
and
brain.

 Percep(on
 •  The
process
of
organizing
and
interpre(ng
the
 sensory
informa(on.

 Ebbinghaus
Illusion 
 12 2/24/10 •  Sensa(on
=
raw
info
coming
in
(e.g.
light
 waves)
 •  Percep(on
=
how
we
interpret
(perceive)
that
 sensory
info
 13 2/24/10 Refrac(on
 Far object Near object less refraction more 14 2/24/10 •  Preferen(al‐looking
technique
(Fantz,1961)
 Assessing
vision
in
infants
 Infant
vision
 •  Infants
typically
show
preferences
in
what
 they
look
at.
 •  Prefer
complex
pa<erns
to
simple
s(muli.


 Black Red 15 2/24/10 Externality
Effect 
 Preference
for
Faces 
 •  Preferences
for
pre<y
faces
(at
2
months)
 –  the
“average”
of
faces
is
the
prelest
(as
rated
 by
adults)
 16 ...
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