pdp2 - 3/1/10 Perceptual
Development 
 Part
II 
...

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Unformatted text preview: 3/1/10 Perceptual
Development 
 Part
II 
 •  Preferen6al‐looking
technique
(Fantz,1961)
 Assessing
vision
in
infants
 Infant
vision
 •  Infants
typically
show
preferences
in
what
 they
look
at.
 •  Prefer
complex
paGerns
to
simple
s6muli.


 1 3/1/10 Black Red Preference
for
Faces 
 •  Externality
Effect
 Preference
for
Faces 
 •  Externality
Effect
 •  Preferences
for
preGy
faces
(at
2
months)
 –  the
“average”
of
faces
is
the
preMest
(as
rated
 by
adults)
 2 3/1/10 Visual
Acuity
 •  Children
and
adults
 –  Measured
by
Snellen
eye
chart
 •  Infants
 –  Measured
by
gra6ng
acuity
 Snellen
Eye
Charts 
 Grating Acuity 3 3/1/10 Newborn
Acuity
 •  Newborn
20/200
to
20/400
 –  Cornea
isn’t
shaped
right
(matures
around
6
to
18
 months)
 –  More
cones
need
to
develop
(re6na
is
 underdeveloped)
 –  Ciliary
muscles
need
to
strengthen
 4 3/1/10 Visual
improvements
 •  Accommoda6on
 –  Lens
and
cornea
become
beGer
able
to
focus
light
 on
the
re6na
 •  Acuity
 –  Increased
number
of
cones
 –  Increased
number
of
neural
connec6ons
in
the
 visual
cortex.
 •  Color
 –  2‐
to
3‐mo
 Perceptual
‐
Motor
Experience
 •  How
are
vision
and
motor
development
linked
 together?
 •  How
important
is
ac6ve
movement
to
 percep6on?
 5 3/1/10 Perceptual
Development
 •  Held
and
Hein
(1963)
 –  passive
kiGen
=
no
depth
percep6on
 –  Inappropriate
behavior
when
approached
 Visual
Cliff 
 •  Infants
have
early
sensi6vity
to
depth
 percep6on
 •  Prelocomotor
infants
 –  Heart
rate
decelera6on
when
lowered
onto
deep
 side
of
cliff
 6 3/1/10 Depth
Percep6on 
 •  How
important
is
ac6ve
movement
in
understanding
 depth
in
infants?


VERY
IMPORTANT
 •  Visual
Cliff
 –  Babies
with
crawling
experience
are
afraid
of
 depth;
will
not
cross
the
visual
cliff
 –  Babies
with
liGle
crawling
experience
are
not
 afraid
of
depth;
will
cross
the
visual
cliff
 •  Experience
with
ac6vely
crea6ng
visual
flow
 
peripheral
vision

understanding
the
 consequences
of
depth

 Motor
Behavior
in
Blind
Children
 •  Blindness
more
devasta6ng
then
deficits
in
 other
senses.
 •  Blindness
 –  assessed
an
distance
vision
 –  20/200
on
Snellen
chart
legally
blind.
 –  Equivalent
to
80%
loss.
 Age
of
Blindness
 •  Vision
loss
aher
5
years
 –  more
capable
of
dealing
with
life’s
demands.
 •  Congenital
blindness
and
loss
before
5
yoa.
 –  LiGle
workable
imagery
 –  must
adjust
to
a
visual
world
without
visually
established
 reference
point.
 7 3/1/10 Vision
and
Motor
Milestones
 
 •  Seeing
things
encourages
motor
movement.
 •  Blind
children:
 –  Later
head‐trunk
control
 –  Later
creeping
 –  Later
walking
 •  Encouraging
movement
in
blind
children
 Nonvisual
Senses
 8 3/1/10 Propriocep6on
 •  Awareness
of
one’s
movements
 •  Ability
to
perceive
the
loca6on
of
one’s
body
 parts
in
space
without
visual
reference
to
 them
 Sensory
receptors
 •  Muscle
spindles
 •  Golgi
tendon
organs
 •  Joint
receptors
 Respond to changes in the length and tension relationship of muscles and changes in joint angles Detects movement of the head •  Ves6bular
system
 Ves6bular
system
 •  Semicircular
canals
 –  Angular
accelera6ons
 •  Otolith
organs
 –  Linear
accelera6ons
 9 3/1/10 Cutaneous
System
 •  Tac6le
sensi6vity
(skin)
 •  Responses
to
tac6le
s6mula6on
 –  Reflex
response
 •  Babinski
reflex
 –  Withdrawal
response
 •  Move
away
from
unpleasant
or
painful
object
 Cutaneous
System
 •  First
sensory
system
to
develop
in
utero
 –  Fetus
responds
to
light
stroking
in
utero
 •  Sensi6vity
to
tac6le
s6mula6on
is
greatest
in
 the
mouth,
lips,
tongue
of
neonate
 –  Helps
child
to
explore
world
 •  Touch
sensi6vity
 Cutaneous
System 
 •  Helps
with
balance
 •  Romberg’s
Sign
Disease
 10 3/1/10 Auditory
System
 •  Auditory
percep6on
 –  Auditory
s6muli
received,
selected,
organized,
and
 interpreted
 Auditory
System
 •  Prenatal
babies
are
capable
of
hearing
during
 the
last
few
months
of
pregnancy
 •  At
birth,
the
ear
is
structurally
ready,
but
fluid
 in
the
inner
ear
prevents
sound
wave
travel
for
 a
few
days
 •  It
is
believed
that
the
sound
threshold
is
high
 in
newborns,
thus
requiring
louder
sounds
 •  Newborns
show
auditory
localiza/on
 11 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course HK 253 taught by Professor Claxton during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University.

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