Student%20Lecture%202%20%28Historical%20Perspective%29 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 2 Historical Perspective Historical Thursday 1­14­10 Outline Outline Lecture “Historical Perspective” Discuss Grant Project 1 “Topic/Bibliography” When and where did the When and where did the discipline of exercise physiology begin? Asian Asian Historical data suggests that as far back as 2600 B.C. cultures in ____________ performed “breathing exercises” for health. / Greek Greek ___________ (460­370 BC) “___________” Advocate of proper diet and physical training *Hippocrates (cont.) *Hippocrates _____________________ _____________________ – “if we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not too much, we would have found the safest way to health” – “of running exercises, such as are not double and long, if increased gradually, have the power to heat, concoct and dissolve the flesh: they digest the power of the food that is in the flesh” – “it (exercise) makes the body more moist” – “running in circles reduces and contracts the belly most, because as it causes the most rapid respiration” _____________________ _____________________ Greek Greek _____________ (129­210 AD) Roman empire “________________” One of the 1st “Bench Physiologists” _____________ _____________ Formulated exercise regimens (ball, disc, rope climbing) *Galen (cont.) *Galen “To me it does not seem that all movement is exercise, but only when it is vigorous. But since vigor is relative, the same movement might be exercise for one and not another. The criterion of vigorousness is change in respiration; those movements which do not alter the respiration are not called exercise. But if anyone is compelled by any movement to breathe more or less or faster, that movement becomes faster for him. This is what is commonly called exercise or gymnastics….The use of exercise, I think are twofold, one for the evacuation of excrements, the other for the production of good condition of the firm parts of the body. For since vigorous motion is exercise, it must need be that only these three things result from it in the exercising body­hardness of the organs from mutual attrition, increased intrinsic warmth, and accelerated movement of respiration. These are followed by the other individual benefits which accrue t the body from exercise; from hardness of the organs, both insensitivity and strength for function; from warmth, both strong attraction for things to be eliminated, readier metabolism, and better nutrition and diffusion of all substances, whereby it results that solids are softened, liquids diluted, and ducts dilated. And from the vigorous movement of respiration the ducts must be purged and the excrements evacuated.” Renaissance Renaissance For approximately 12 centuries few advances were made in physiology or exercise physiology. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ ______________. Hygiene Notable European Scientists Notable ________________ (1452­1519) – Circulatory system _________________ (1578­1657) _________________ (1627­1691) _________________ (1743­1794) – Mechanics of respiratory system – Detailed drawing of human anatomy. – Discovered elements involved in metabolism August Krogh August 1874­1949 Professor at the University of Copenhagen _________________ _____________ Most influential _________________ _____________ *Kroghs Nobel Prize *Krogh’s ______________________________ ACSM’s Advanced Exercise Physiology Text *Krogh’s Other Contributions *Krogh’s Proved that _________________ _________________ ___________. (Disproved Bohr’s active transport theory) _______________ (1910­1915) Fig 10.11 Recent Contributions of European Exercise Physiologists Exercise Per­Olof Astrand MD, PhD – Karolinska Institute Medical School – ________________ Bengt Saltin MD, PhD – Copenhagen Muscle Research Center – ________________ Exercise Physiology, McArdle Katch and Katch (text) When and where did the study When and where did the study of exercise physiology begin in the United States? __________________ __________________ 1891­1899 Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Physical Training at the Lawrence Scientific School. Department Head ­ George Wells Fitz, MD Nine men graduated with BS. *Curriculum _________________________ _________________________ – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Exercise physiology Zoology Morphology (animal and human) Anthropometry Applied anatomy and animal mechanics Medical chemistry Comparative anatomy Remedial exercises Physics Gymnastics and athletics History of physical education English Medical anatomy Medical physiology *Exercise Physiology Laboratory 6 hours a week of laboratory study. 6 hours a week of laboratory study. “A large and well­equipped laboratory has been organized for the experimental study of the physiology of exercise. The object of this work is to exemplify the hygiene of the muscles, the conditions under which they act, the relation of their action to the body as a whole affecting blood supply and general hygienic conditions, and the effects of various exercise upon muscular growth and general health.” Other exercise physiology laboratories George Williams College (1923) George Williams College (1923) ____________________ (1925) Springfield College (1927) _____________________ (1927) University of California at Berkley(1934) – Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene – _______________________ Harvard Fatigue Laboratory Harvard 1927­1947 Established by Director – __________________ __________, MD – David Bruce Dill – Stanford graduate in Biochemistry The History of Exercise and Sports Science (text) *Areas of Research *Areas ________________________________________________ ____________________________________ – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Specificity of exercise prescription Genetic components of an exercise response Selectivity of the adaptive responses by diseased populations Differentiation between central and peripheral adaptations The existence of cellular thresholds Actions of transmitters and the regulation of receptors Feed­forward and feedback mechanisms that influence cardiorespiratory and metabolic control Matching mechanisms between O2 delivery and O2 demand Substrate utilization Adaptive responses of cellular and molecular units Mechanisms responsible for signal transduction The behavior of lactate in cells Plasticity of muscle fiber types Motor function of the spinal cord Hypoxemia and severe exercise The History of Exercise and Sports Science (text) *Harvard Fatigue Laboratory Researchers The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory: It’s History and Contributions (text) The History of Exercise and Sports Science (text) *Legacy of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory Laboratory _______________________________________ R.E. Johnson ­ Univ. of Illinois S. Robinson ­ Indiana Univ. R.C. Darling ­ Columbia Univ. H.S. Belding ­ Univ. Pittsburgh ______________________________________ C.F. Consolazio – US Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory L. Brouha – Univ of Montreal ______________________________________________ __________________________________ What is your link to the Harvard What is your link to the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory? *Your Harvard Fatigue *Your Laboratory Family Tree Laboratory A. Keys MD Univ. of Minnesota R.E. Johnson, PhD Univ. of Illinois E. Buskirk, PhD Pennsylvania State Univ., Noll Lab C.M. Tipton, PhD Univ. of Iowa M.H. Laughlin, PhD Univ. of Missouri S.C. Newcomer, PhD Purdue Univ. Purdue University HK 468 Students Exercise Physiology Transition Exercise __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ ______________ Performance Based 10­15 years Health Based Leaders in the movement Leaders ______________________________ ______________________________ University of California – San Diego Mayo Clinic – Medical School (Physiology) – Medical School (Human Integrative Physiology) – Vet School (Biomedical Sciences) – (Kinesiology) – (Integrative Physiology) ______________________________ Copenhagen Muscle Research Institute Professional Societies Professional ________________________ (APS) American Association of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER) ________________________ (ACSM) Specialty Societies – American Heart Association (AHA) Research Journals Research ___________________ American Journal of Physiology __________________________________ ________________________ Acta Physiologica Scandinavica Specialty Journals – Circulation, Hypertension, Circulation Research ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course HK 458 taught by Professor Newcomer during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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