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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 7 Cardiovascular Cardiovascular Cardiac Tuesday 2­2­10 Outline Outline Extra Credit 1. February 19th, 1:30, Armstrong B061, Anne Cox, Illinois State University, “Physical education motivation: Do different reasons really matter” Quiz #4 Cardiac Anatomy / Function Heart Heart Pumps blood through the circulatory system Enclosed in the pericardial sac. – ______________________ ________________ – ______________________ ________________ Size is approximately that of a human fist Weight ranges from ______________. Human Anatomy, Marieb and Mallatt Layers of Heart Wall Layers Three layers ___________ – Produces pericardial fluid for lubrication – Pericarditis is roughing of the serous pericardium through infection or inflammation. – __________________________ __________________ – __________________________ __________________ Endothelial cell Fig 9.3 Myocardium Endocardium Chambers and Valves Chambers Four Chambers – Right Atrium, _______, ________, Left Ventricle – Right atrioventricular (tricuspid), Left atrioventricular (bicuspid), _____________, and Aortic semilunar valve. Human Anatomy, Marieb and Mallatt Ventricles Ventricles _________________ _____________. Wall of left ventricle thick. _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _______ Human Anatomy, Marieb and Mallatt Circulation of Blood Circulation Vena Cava Right Atrium ___________ Right Ventricle Pulmonary Semilunar Valve Pulmonary artery ____________ ____________ Left Atrium Left AV Valve Left Ventricle ______________ Aorta Exercise Physiology, McArdle, Katch and Katch Arrangement of Cardiac Muscle Arrangement _________________ _________________ _________________ _________ Atrium Ventricles – _________ – moves blood inferiorly – Spiral – moves blood ___________ Human Anatomy, Marieb and Mallatt Coronary arteries Coronary Heart never stops beating. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________ Coronary arteries supply __________ blood to cardiac muscle. ___________ of oxygen in blood is extracted by cardiac muscle. http://media­ Coronary Arteries Coronary Coronary arteries originate at base of ____________. ________Coronary Artery – – Perfusion of L Atrium and ventricle Anterior Intraventricular Artery ____________ ________ Coronary Artery – Marginal Artery – Posterior Intraventricular Artery Coronary Sinus Perfusion of R Atrium and ventricle – Deoxygenated blood enters the ___________ through coronary sinus Human Anatomy, Marieb and Mallatt Cardiac ≠ Skeletal Myocytes Myocytes Fibers are _______ Fibers are _______ Single nuclei Intercalated disks Single fiber type (similar to Type I) No ___________ Ca++ source SR and ______________ Human Anatomy, Marieb and Mallatt Heart Electrical Conductivity Heart has intrinsic Heart has intrinsic rhythm. __________ – Pacemaker of heart – Right atrium (8mm long, 2mm thick) – Spontaneous electrical activity Wave of ___________ through right and left atria Depolarization unable to pass into ________ _____________________ _____________________ ____________ Exercise Physiology, McArdle, Katch and Katch Heart Electrical Conductivity Heart _________ – Conducts depolarization that was initiated in atria to ventricles – Floor of right R. atrium – __________ Bundle of His Right and Left Bundle Branch ______________ – Depolarizes right and left ventricles Cardiovascular Physiology, Berne and Levy Intercalated Disks Intercalated Different from skeletal muscle because each fiber is not innervated by a nerve. _____________________ _______________ Allow wave of ____________ to move from cell to ___. Functional syncytium Heart, Opie Regulation of Cardiac Myocyte Ca++ Regulation Different from skeletal muscle Sarcolemma and T­Tubule depolarization. Depolarization causes _____________ on sarcolemma and T­tubule to open. Extracellular ____ enters into cardiac myocyte. Ca++ that enters into cell is not in high enough concentration to elicit contraction but does cause _____________ to open. Ca++ released from SR. During repolarization L­type Ca++ channels close. ________________________________ ________________________________ ____________________ Cardiovascular Physiology, Berne and Levy Electrocardiogram (ECG) Electrocardiogram Measures electrical changes that occur in myocardium during contraction and relaxation of the cardiac tissue. Exercise Physiology, McArdle, Katch and Katch Electrocardiogram Electrocardiogram P wave QRS complex – ______________ – _____________ _____________ Where in ECG tracing does atrial repolarization occur? – Repolarization of ventricles Fig 9.11 Electrocardiogram Electrocardiogram Fig 9.12 Cardiac Cycle Cardiac ______________________________________ ____________________________ Two phases – Diastole – Systole Relaxation Contraction Rest: ____ diastole and ____ systole Fig 9.5 Diastole Diastole Blood entering from pulmonary vein and passes through atria and into left ventricle. _____________________ _____________________ ____________ 70% of blood passively enters ventricle during diastole. Cardiovascular Physiology, Berne and Levy Atrial Systole Atrial Left atrium contract and forces remaining blood (30%) into left ventricle. ____________________ ____________________ ___________ Atrial contraction causes small increase in ventricular pressure and volume. Cardiovascular Physiology, Berne and Levy Ventricular Systole Ventricular Left ventricle contract and cause AV valve to close. ____________________ ________________ Pressure increase in left ventricle causes aortic valve to open and blood to flow out of left ventricle and into aorta Cardiovascular Physiology, Berne and Levy Ventricular Diastole Ventricular Relaxation of left ventricle causes a decrease in ventricular pressure. ____________________ ____________________ ______________ ____________________ ________________ Note a similar diagram can also be drawn for right side of heart. Cardiovascular Physiology, Berne and Levy Cardiac Output The amount of blood pumped out of heart The amount of blood pumped out of heart per minute. Average resting cardiac output is _____________________________ Cardiac Output (Q) = ___________ x Stroke Volume (ml/min). Regulation of Heart Rate Regulation _________ regulated _________ regulated – Parasympathetic – ____________ – SA Node – AV Node Fig 9.14 Parasympathetic Parasympathetic Vagal Nerve Vagal or Parasympathetic Tone Releases ______ – ______________________ _______________ – Opens K+ channels – __________ Ca channel opening by decreasing cAMP ++ ________________ (i.e. moves further away from depolarization threshold Heart, Opie Sympathetic Sympathetic ______________ Nerve Release __________________ that binds to beta receptors – Gs protein activation cause adenylyl cyclase to convert ATP cAMP. – cAMP opens membrane _____________. Heart, Opie Regulation of Heart Rate _____________ _____________ – _________ and Carotid Arteries blood pressure receptors – Changes in BP trigger baroreceptors ↑BP=↓HR ____________ ↓ BP=↑HR ____________ – _____________________________ _ ↑Pressure = ↑HR ↑Temp = ↑HR ↓ Temp = ↓ HR Atrial Receptors _______________ Chemoreceptors _____________ Fig 9.14 Regulation of Stoke Volume Regulation Amount of blood pumped per heart beat Factors affecting stroke volume – _________ – _________ – _________ Preload Preload Volume of blood in left ventricle at the end of _________ – Frank­Starling _____________________ _____________________ ____________ Factors affecting preload – – – _____________ _____________ _____________ Fig 9.16 Afterload Afterload Blood __________ that the heart has to exceed to eject blood. Stroke volume __________ proportional to afterload – ___________ = ↓ Stroke Volume ↓ Afterload = _______________ Contractility Contractility Force generated by left ventricle – _____________________ _________________ – Epi and Norepi bind to β receptors – _____________________ _________________ Open Ca++ channels Increase Ca++ ATPase pumps Phosphorylate TroponinT Cardiovascular Physiology, Berne and Levy Fig 9.18 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course HK 458 taught by Professor Newcomer during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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