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Student Lecture - Lecture 9 Cardiovascular Cardiovascular Vascular Acute Exercise Tuesday 2­9­10 Extra credit Outline Outline Quiz 5 Finish

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 9 Cardiovascular Cardiovascular Vascular / Acute Exercise Tuesday 2­9­10 Extra credit Outline Outline Quiz 5 Finish Vascular Lecture Small group discussions Group presentations – February 19th, 1:30, Armstrong B061, Anne Cox, Illinois State University, “Physical education motivation: Do different reasons really matter” Blood Pressure Blood Force exerted by blood against arterial walls. _______________ – force exerted during contraction phase of the cardiac cycle. _______________ – force exerted during relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle. Mean arterial pressure – average pressure across cardiac cycle. Unable to calculate during exercise because ratio of time spent in systole and diastole is no longer 1/3 to 2/3. – ___________________________ Measuring Blood Pressure Measuring Sphygmomanometer (Blood Pressure Cuff) Stethoscope Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure – __________________ _____ – __________________ _________ Exercise Physiology, McArdle, Katch & Katch Factors Influencing Blood Pressure Factors Figure 9.8 Resistance Resistance ________________ Resistance = – (Length x Viscosity/__________) Physiologically ___________ contributes greatest to resistance. < Pressure ∆ Across Systemic Circulation Circulation Figure 9.21 Relationship Between Blood Flow, Pressure and Resistance Pressure Blood Flow = __________________ Resistance = __________________ – Increased resistance equals ____________________ – Decreased resistance equals _________________________ Discussion Topic #1 Discussion It is well known that heart rate increases at the initiation of exercise. Discuss the following topics relative to the heart rate response during exercise. – What is the physiological importance of the increase in heart rate during exercise? – What changes occur to the autonomic nervous system to stimulate the increase in heart rate during exercise? – Describe at the cellular and molecular level how heart rate increases during exercise? – Discuss how high heart rate can go during exercise. – Discuss how maximal heart rate is calculated and the validity of this calculation. – Describe how taking a β­blocker would impact the heart rate response during exercise. – Discuss the kinetics of the heart rate response upon completion of exercise. Discussion Topic #2 Discussion It is well known that stroke volume increases with exercise. Discuss the following topics relative to the change in stroke volume during exercise. – Discuss the mechanisms by which stroke volume is increased during exercise. – Discuss at the cellular and molecular levels how contractility is increased. – Discuss the role that the Frank Starling mechanism play in increasing stroke volume during exercise. – Discuss why stroke volume plateaus at 40% of VO2max in untrained individuals. – Discuss why stroke volume does not plateau in endurance trained individuals. – Discuss how posture during exercise will effect stroke volume. – Discuss how dehydration will effect stroke volume. Discussion Topic #3 Discussion Cardiac output increases during exercise to meet the rising oxygen requirements of the working skeletal muscle. Discuss the following topic relative to the change in cardiac output during exercise. – Discuss the mechanisms involved in the increase in cardiac output during exercise. – Discuss why the slope of the cardiac output is not linear with VO2 (i.e. after a VO2 of 40 to 50% of max). – Discuss why cardiac output decreases after 30 years of age. – Discuss the average maximal cardiac output for a sedentary man and woman. – Discuss the mechanisms underlying a lower cardiac output in women compared to men. – Discuss how ambient air temperature effects cardiac output during prolonged exercise. – Discuss the cardiac output kinetics following exercise. Discussion Topic #4 Discussion Blood pressure is known to change during exercise. Discuss the following topics relative to the change in blood pressure during exercise. – – – – – – – How does systolic blood pressure change during exercise? Discuss the underlying mechanisms involved in the changes in systolic blood pressure during exercise. How does the diastolic blood pressure change during exercise? Discuss the underlying mechanisms involved in the changes in diastolic blood pressure during exercise. Discuss the differences in blood pressure response during arm and leg exercise. Discuss why some individuals immediately following exercise become hypotensive (i.e. post exercise hypotension). Discuss what effects increases in blood pressure have on baroreceptors during exercise. Discussion Topic #5 Discussion It is well known that blood flow increases dramatically at the onset of exercise. Discuss the following topics relative to the change in blood flow during exercise. – Discuss the mechanisms underlying the immediate increase in blood flow at the onset of exercise. – Discuss the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of blood flow during exercise. – Discuss what happens to blood flow in the GI, Kidneys, Bone, Brain and Skin during exercise. – Discuss what happens to coronary artery blood flow and oxygen extraction during exercise. – Discuss how the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the regulation of blood flow during exercise. Discussion Topic #6 Discussion Central command is thought to play a pivotal role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system during exercise. Discuss the following topics relative to how exercise effects the regulation of the cardiovascular system. – Discuss the central command theory. – Discuss how heart mechanoreceptors could modify the central command output. – Discuss how muscle mechanoreceptors could modify the central command output. – Discuss how muscle chemoreceptors (metaboreceptors) could modify the central command output. – Discuss how baroreceptors could modify the central command output. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course HK 458 taught by Professor Newcomer during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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