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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 12 Lecture Cardiovascular Measurements Cardiovascular Pulmonary Structure and Function Pulmonary Thursday 2­18­10 Outline Outline Grant Assignment #2 Extra Credit – February 19th, 1:30, Armstrong B061, Anne Cox, Illinois State University, “Physical education motivation: Do different reasons really matter” – Cardiovascular Measurements – Pulmonary Structure/Function Lecture How do we measure VO2max in a How 2max laboratory setting? laboratory What is specificity of exercise and how does it relate to graded exercise testing and VO2max? testing What type of screening should be done before a graded exercise test? done What baseline measurements should be taken prior to graded exercise test? test? What are the four criterion typically used to determine if VO2max has been used obtained obtained What is the difference between VO2peak and VO2max? VO What is the physiological What is the physiological function of the respiratory system? Function of the Respiratory System Function – Gas exchange Oxygen (O2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Anatomy of the Respiratory System Anatomy Nose Mouth Trachea Lungs – Right Superior, Middle, Inferior Lobes Fig 10.1 Pleura Pleura Two pleural membranes Pleural fluid – Fluid between parietal and visceral pleura. Fig 10.2 Lungs Lungs Network of tubes that decrease in diameter with increasing branching Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli Fig 10.3 Cross-sectional area of pulmonary network pulmonary McArdle, Katch and Katch Function of Conducting Zone Function Protection of the lungs – Filters air Cilia transports mucus up respiratory tree. Function of Respiratory Zone Function Protection of the lung against foreign substances Alveoli Alveoli million Diameter Surface area McArdle, Katch and Katch West Alveoli Alveoli – Attractive force between adjacent molecules of liquid is greater than that of liquid and gas. Why doesn’t the alveoli Why doesn’t the alveoli collapse? Alveoli Alveoli Surfactant is a Synthesized in Type II alveolar cells Fig 10.5 West – Decreases surface tension Alveoli Structural Structural organization of capillaries around alveoli facilitates gas exchange West Alveoli Alveoli Diffusion distance between alveoli and red blood cell is very small. Structures ACSM’s Advanced Exercise Physiology Alveoli and Diffusion Alveoli Alveoli is perfectly designed for diffusion of Gas transfer is – Proportional to Diffusion coefficient – Inversely Proportional to Thickness West Describe the blood flow through Describe the blood flow through the lungs? What is resting lung blood flow? Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary Blood flow Volume of blood passing through pulmonary circulation is equal to that passing through Fig 10.12 Why is left ventricle wall Why is left ventricle wall thickness greater that right ventricle wall thickness? Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary Low blood pressure in pulmonary circulation is due to low vascular resistance. Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary Blood flow is not equally distributed throughout lungs. Why? West Fig 10.13 What implications would What implications would differences in blood flow distribution throughout lungs have on gas exchange? Ventilation/Perfusion Ratios Ventilation/Perfusion Ideally ventilation should be matched to blood flow to facilitate gas exchange. V/Q ratio V/Q > 1 = V/Q< 1 = Base of lung has best V/ Q ratio Fig 10.14 ...
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