Student%20Lecture%2013%20Pulmonary-Structure%20Function -...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 13 Lecture Pulmonary Structure and Function Thursday 2­23­10 Outline Outline Announcements – Quiz #8 (on blackboard, email a completed quiz to me on 3­2­10 no later than 2:45 pm) – Midterm (on blackboard, email a completed test to me on 3­4­10 no later than 2:45pm ) Quiz #7 Lecture Discuss – Pulmonary Structure/Function – Grant assignment #2 – Grant assignment #3 Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary Blood flow is not equally distributed throughout lungs. Why? West Fig 10.13 What implications would What implications would differences in blood flow distribution throughout lungs have on gas exchange? Ventilation/Perfusion Ratios Ventilation/Perfusion Ideally ventilation should be matched to blood flow to facilitate gas exchange. V/Q ratio V/Q > 1 = V/Q< 1 = Base of lung has best V/ Q ratio Fig 10.14 How is air moved in and out of How is air moved in and out of the lungs (ventilation)? Muscles of Ventilation Muscles Inspiration – Rest – Exercise Expiration – Rest – Exercise Fig 10.7 Mechanics of Ventilation (Example) Mechanics McArdle, Katch and Katch Mechanics of Ventilation Mechanics Changes in _______________dur ing inspiration and expiration create gradient for air flow in an out of lung. Fig 10.6 Pulmonary Ventilation (V) Pulmonary The amount of air moved in or out of the lungs per minute Pulmonary Ventilation West Dead­space ventilation (VD) Pulmonary Ventilation (V) Pulmonary Alveolar ventilation (VA) VD & VA McArdle, Katch & Katch Measuring Lung Volumes Measuring McArdle, Katch & Katch Lung Volumes and Capacities Lung Fig 10.9 Lung Volumes Lung Tidal Volume (TV) Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) Residual Lung Volume (RLV) Lung Capacities Lung Total Lung Capacity (TLC) Forced Vital Capacity Fig 10.10 How does acute exercise How does acute exercise impact lung volumes? Effects of acute exercise on breathing frequency breathing ACSM’s Advanced Exercise Physiology Effects of acute exercise on lung volumes volumes Tidal volume increases with exercise. McArdle, Katch & Katch Effects of Exercise on Ventilation Effects Condition Breathing Rate (breaths/min) Tidal Volume (L/breath) Pulmonary Ventilation (L/min) Rest Moderate Exercise Vigorous Exercise How does chronic endurance How does chronic endurance exercise training impact lung volumes? Cross-sectional studies (rest) Cross-sectional What is the one sport that What is the one sport that changes in lung volumes have been reported? Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (rest) studies Clanton et al. 1987 Cross­sectional data Longitudinal Mechanisms???? Longitudinal studies (exercise) Longitudinal Fig 10.29 How does O2 and CO2 diffuse? How does O O2 and CO2 diffusion and diffusion Partial pressure – Fractional composition of gas x absolute pressure O2 = x .2093 = 159mmHg CO2 = x .0003 = 0.228mmHg Fick’s Law of Diffusion Fick’s O2 and CO2 diffusion Fig 10.11 ...
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