Historical%20Perspectives - HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON...

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JANUARY 14, 2010 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR
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Ancients believed that evil spirits could inhabit individuals Trephination used to “relieve” patient of demons The relationship between abnormal behavior and demons
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Ancient Greece Ancient Greeks: Mental health dependend on the balance of the humors (vital fluids): Sanguine: Blood – activity and confidence Melancholic: Black Bile and depression Phlegmatic: Phlegm and lethargy Choleric: yellow bile –quick tempered
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Middle Ages: The supernatural tradition Evil spirits Demons Witches
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Magic potions Exorcism Rituals Shaving the pattern of a cross in the hair of victim’s head Securing suffers to the wall near the front of a church so that they might benefit from hearing Mass
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In middle ages: if exorcism failed Make body uninhabitable by the spirits by: Confinement Beatings Torture
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Dark Ages (500 – 1500 A.D.) Burning demon possessed
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1510 Manual for how to diagnose and “treat” witches: Mallueus Mallificarum Usual symptoms: Bipolarity Schizophrenia Psychotic depression
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Water test: is she a witch? If she floats = WEIGHTLESS WITCH SANK= INNOCENT Many drowned
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Even after founding USA Salem witch trials
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Biological: bloodletting, 1500’s Remove blood with leeches To prevent demon possession In some cases, person bled to death
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Trephination
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Today Electric Convulsive Therapy Brain Surgery Medications
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1745: St Mary’s of Bethlehem Established a lunatic asylum Criminals & those suffering psychologically lumped together Beaten Chained humiliated
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Bedlam 18thc Visitors paid to gawk at patients as if viewing zoo animals (art on the walls)
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Severely Mentally ill placed in Chains & Cages:1806
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The Age of Reform, the rise of the ( c. 1750 - c. 1850 ) Resulted in improved care for the mentally ill
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Chains Removed: 1793 humane treatment in French asylums Philip Pinel, French physician, was shocked by the senseless brutality that was custom in “mental hospitals”
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Benjamin Rush (1813) believed restraint was required to regain sensibilities
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Benjamin Rush Madness was caused by engorgement of blood vessels in the brain Recommended blood letting, purging, and ice-bath to relieve pressure in the brain. However, also advocated that patients be treated with kindness Considered father of American Psychiatry
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Dorthea Dix,1848 lobbies for more humane treatment for the insane and mentally ill in New Jersey Responsible for transition from brutal to gentler treatment
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th and early 20 th Centuries Despite the effort of Dix and others mental institutions continued to grow Deplorable conditions were commonplace Advances in science and philosophy
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course PSYCH 350 taught by Professor Conger during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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Historical%20Perspectives - HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON...

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