Study Guide - Geosci 105 Study Guide Average radius of...

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Geosci 105 Study Guide Average radius of Earth = 6371 km Average Distance to Moon = 381,555 km Average Distance to Sun = 149,600,000 km = 1 AU (Astr. Unit) Average width of Solar system = 39 AU The speed of light as a measure of distance 1 light-second = distance that light travels in 1 second 1 light-minute = distance that light travels in 1 minute 1 light-hour = distance that light travels in 1 hour 1 light-year = distance that light travels in 1 year Distances to the Universe Avg. distance to moon = ~1 light second 1. How far should we put Earth from our “soccer ball Sun” to realistically represent the distance between them? 1.4 10 8 km / 10 10 = 1.4 10 -2 km = 14 meters (40 feet) 2. The width of the solar system? 5.9 10 9 km / 10 10 = 5.9 10 -1 km = 590 meters 3. How far should we put Alpha Centauri from our “soccer ball Sun”? 4.2 10 13 km / 10 10 = 4.2 10 3 km = 4200 km = 2600 miles (Ann Arbor to San Francisco) Geologic time 0.1 mm of year of mountain building (or erosion): Time to build it: 5000 m high mountain / 0.1 mm/yr 1
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-3 = 50 million years Radiometric dating Earth = 4.567 billion years old Straitigraphy: the study of the layering of rock assemblages Archean: o Continental crust formations o Oldest rock (Greenland, Canada, Western Australia) o are from the Archean eon Meteorites: Meteorites have the same ages: 4.55 +/- 0.05 billion years They suggest that the age of the solar system (including planets) is about 4.5 billion years that solar system formation took less than a few tens of million of years meteorites provide us constraints on the chemical composition of Earth. Heat and the shaping of Earth: - Why is the Earth a sphere? Early Earth was hot The outer 1000 km was molten, the inner region could easily deform (i.e. flow). Earth was shaped as an perfectly spherical planet concentric spherical shells were formed by the action of gravity. Earth’s differentiation:
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Study Guide - Geosci 105 Study Guide Average radius of...

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