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Lec 9 - Plate tectonics collision zones Lecture 1...

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GE105 Continents Adrift 11 Plate tectonics – collision zones Lecture 1. Introduction and course overview. Lecture 2. Distance and time. Lecture 3. Planet building and Earth’s layered structure. Lecture 4. Wegener’s Continental Drift hypothesis. Lecture 5. Earth’s magnetic field and polar wander. Lecture 6. Reversals and seafloor spreading. Lecture 7. Plate tectonics – spreading and rifting. Lecture 8. Plate tectonics – collision zones Lecture 9. The wave that shook the world (movie) Lecture 10. Earthquakes Lecture 11. Volcanoes Lecture 12. Mantle convection and wrap-up Lecture 13. Final Exam (FEBRUARY 17, 2011)
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GE105 Continents Adrift 22 Basic types of earthquake faults NORMAL FAULTS STRIKE-SLIP FAULTS REVERSE FAULTS NORMAL FAULTS: rift zones, spreading region: plates move away from each other REVERSE FAULTS: subduction zones, continental collision zones: plates move toward each other STRIKE-SLIP FAULTS: San Andreas Fault, Transform faults: plates slide past each other
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GE105 Continents Adrift 33 What are earthquakes? Earthquakes occur on pre-existing faults. They involve sliding of blocks along a planar surface. Earthquakes occur when stress on the fault exceed the frictional strength of the contact. BORAH PEAK, UTAH (1952)
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GE105 Continents Adrift 44 Fault scarps 1992 California 1999 Taiwan
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GE105 Continents Adrift 55 The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 One of the most devastating earthquakes to occur in the United States
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GE105 Continents Adrift 66 Elastic rebound (based on 1906 field observations) Earthquake rebound theory H. F. Reid
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GE105 Continents Adrift 77 Build-up and sudden release of strain Earthquake rebound theory H. F. Reid IMPERIAL VALLEY, CA HOLLISTER, CA
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GE105 Continents Adrift 88 Large stream valley offset over time
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GE105 Continents Adrift 99 How to record earthquakes; seismographs 1992 California
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GE105 Continents Adrift 1010 Ground motions in Ann Arbor (Argentina earthquake) 1992 California
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