lec 2 - GE105 Continents Adrift GE105 Continents Adrift 11...

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Unformatted text preview: GE105 Continents Adrift GE105 Continents Adrift 11 Goals- Introduction to the geology and physics of the Earth Format- 13 Lectures + (p)review questions- One midterm movie (Asian tsunami earthquake) GeoSci 105 Continents Adrift; Class outline 2 The Earth’s place in the Solar system 3 Earth’s structure 4 Geologic time 5 Alfred Wegener and continental drift 6 Alfred Wegener and continental drift II 7 Modern plate tectonics: observations and theory I 8 Modern plate tectonics: observations and theory II 9 Earthquakes, volcanoes and plate tectonics 10 Video: “The wave that shook the Earth” 11 Mantle convection and hotspots GE105 Continents Adrift Continents Adrift 22 Goals- Introduction to geology and physics of the Earth Format- Lectures + (p)review questions- One midterm movie (Asian tsunami earthquake) CTools- Notes and Handouts will be posted on Ctools- I do recommend that you take notes in class!!! Grade- One final exam graded “on the curve” - ALL GRADES ARE FINAL! Continents Adrift GE105 GE105 Continents Adrift Continents Adrift 33 Syllabus Class overview Resources Reading materials and abbreviated powerpoint slide sets Announcements Ad-hoc info Chat-room Help with exam preparation E-mail [email protected] C-tools GE105 GE105 Continents Adrift GE105 Continents Adrift 44 Exam questions Scientist now agree that a) the Milky Way is in the center of the Universe. b) the Sun is in the center of the Universe. c) the Earth is in the center of the Universe. d) America in the center of the Universe. e) none of the above is true. The presence of a metallic core in Earth can be inferred from a) the magnetic field. b) Earth’s moment of inertia. c) meteorites. d) earthquake waves recordings. e) All of the above . The Earth is molten in a) the inner core. b) the outer core. c) the lower mantle. d) the upper mantle directly beneath the tectonic plates. e) (B) and (D). GE105 Continents Adrift GE105 Continents Adrift 55 Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.) GE105 Continents Adrift GE105 Continents Adrift 66 Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.) If the Earth is spherical, the rays cannot be perpendicular to the surface at Alexandria, 786 km to the north. When Eratosthenos measured the sun angle at Alexandria at noon on the next summer day, it turned out to be 7.2o. This gave him an estimate of Earth’s circumference: 360o/x = 7.2o/786 km. Therefore, x = 39,300 km (within 2% of the actual value of 40,008 km!!) GE105 Continents Adrift GE105 Continents Adrift 77 Sizing up Earth Earth (average) radius R = 6371 km Earth’s volume V = 4/3 π R3 = 1.1 1021 m3 Earth’s mass M = 6 1024 kg Earth’s density ρ = 5.5 103 kg/m3 = 5.5 g/cm3 typical densities of rocks at Earth’s surface = 2.6–3.0 g/cm3 Earth’s gravity g = 10 m/s2 Earth’s internal pressure P = ρ g d At the core-mantle interface (3000 km depth): P = 5 103 ×10 × 3000 103 = 1.5 1011 Pa = (1.5 million atmospheric pressure) GE105 Continents Adrift GE105 Continents Adrift 88 Distances in the Solar system Average radius of Earth...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course GEOSCI 105 taught by Professor Ritsema during the Winter '11 term at University of Michigan.

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lec 2 - GE105 Continents Adrift GE105 Continents Adrift 11...

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