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Unformatted text preview: Disease Patterns Disease Patterns Patterns of disease in the U.S. have changed from acute infectious disorders to “preventable” disorders Tuberculosis, influenza, measles, poliomyelitis lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, alcohol, and other drug abuse Death Rates for the 10 Leading Causes Death Rates for the 10 Leading Causes of Death per 100,000 Population, United States, 1900 and 2001
1900 2001 Cognitivebehavioral approaches Selfmonitoring Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Modeling Stimulus control The selfcontrol of behavior Broadspectrum cognitive behavior therapy Relapse How Can We Change Health How Can We Change Health Behaviors? Attitudinal approaches Assume that if we give people correct information about their poor health habits they may be motivated to change those habits SelfMonitoring SelfMonitoring Selfobservation Tracking/Diaries Frequency Antecedents Consequences Classical conditioning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Operant conditioning
Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Modeling Modeling
Observing another person’s behavior Health related examples? Stimulus control interventions Stimulus control interventions Rid the environment of discriminative stimuli Stimulus control interventions Stimulus control interventions Creating new discriminative stimuli signaling that a new response will be reinforced CognitiveBehavioral Approaches CognitiveBehavioral Approaches The Selfcontrol of behavior Selfreinforcement Positive reinforcement (adds a desired factor) Negative reinforcement (removes an aversive factor) Positive selfpunishment (adds an unpleasant stimulus) Negative selfpunishment (removes a pleasant stimulus) Contingency contracting Contingency contracting Forming a contract with another person detailing what rewards and punishments are contingent on the performance or nonperformance of a behavior Covert Selfcontrol Covert Selfcontrol Covert selfcontrol Cognitive restructuring Selftalk I’ll never be able to quit smoking I can do this Skills training Skills training Provides individuals with alternative ways of coping with the anxiety Goals: 1) reduce anxiety that occurs in social situations 2) introduce new skills for dealing w/situations that cause anxiety 3) provide an alternative behavior for the poor health habit that arose in response to social anxiety Motivational Interviewing Motivational Interviewing Nonjudgmental, emphatic, encouraging Clientcentered counseling Get the client to think through and express some of his/her own reasons for and against change; interviewer listens and provides encouragement Goal: enhance selfmotivation Relaxation training Relaxation training Deep breathing produces physiological changes (e.g. dec heart rate) Progressive muscle relaxation individual learns to relax all muscles in the body to discharge tension or stress Goal: stress reduction BroadSpectrum Cognitive BroadSpectrum Cognitive Behavior Therapy Multimodal CBT Therapist selects several complimentary methods to intervene Combination of techniques can be more effective than one Can be tailored to the problem Goal: Provide a comprehensive approach to behavior change in response to multiple stimuli Relapse Relapse Relapse Relapse Relapse rates tend to stabilize at 3 months (6mo is the critical time period) Why? Genetic factors, withdrawal effects, cues, depressed, anxious, stressed Abstinence violation effect Consequences Reducing relapse Relapse Prevention Relapse Prevention High motivation; High commitment Have people identify high risk situations then develop coping skills Cue elimination or restructuring the environments Lifestyle rebalancing Goal: longterm behavior change What is largely missing? What is largely missing? Social Context Environment Peers Social norms Policy Setting Built Environment SelfDetermination Theory SelfDetermination Theory Assumptions Motivation is on a continuum Intrinsic motivation sustains longterm behavior
Autonomy Belongingness Competence Social context influences your motivation An Intervention Example: An Intervention Example: ACT (Active by Choice Today) Program Overview Cognitive Behavioral Components 2 hour after school program, 3 days a week Snack, homework, group time, physical activity Skills training Engage in PA Build selfefficacy Group time: how to do it at home, strategies ACT Program ACT Program Cognitive Behavioral Components Motivation
Fun Social Choice Modeling Contingencies Staff and peers engaging in PA Group rewards ACT Program ACT Program Cognitive Behavioral Components Relapse Prevention Strategies for overcoming barriers Engaging others How are some intervention How are some intervention components related? Motivation α Peer Social Support t’ β Physical Activity Can you pick out cognitive Can you pick out cognitive behavioral pieces?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwvW_yeOBqs How do these change when they go home? ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course PYSC 465 taught by Professor Wilson during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.
- Spring '10