Chapter Powerpoints/Weekly

Chapter Powerpoints/Weekly - 1 VIRAL AGENTS SMALLPOX Joan M...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 VIRAL AGENTS SMALLPOX Joan M. Culley, PhD, MPH, RN, CWOCN Revised Sept 2010 2 Objectives • Define potential biological agents – Viral agents • Smallpox • Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers • Viral Encephalitis • Describe clinical disease and outcomes • Discuss diagnostic issues • Outline treatment and prophylaxis regimens • Describe the use of personal protective procedures to increase protection against biological agents 3 Viruses As Biological Agents • Smallpox • Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHF) • Viral Encephalitides 4 Viruses - General Characteristics • RNA or DNA within a protein coat • Require a host to function and survive • Many viruses attack a specific type of cell causing disease or cancer 5 Viruses - General Characteristics • May cause disease through direct effect, immune complex deposition and other effects • May result in end-organ system failure, vascular damage • Few antiviral medications available • Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing infection 6 Criteria for Viruses As Effective BioWarfare (BW) Agents • Efficient production • Stability • High infectivity rates • Consistent induction 7 Smallpox • One of the largest viruses known • History – Known for 3000 yrs – Europe 710 AD – Americas 1520 AD 8 Smallpox As BW Threat • WHO: smallpox “…can be produced and used as a weapon with relatively simple techniques” • Highly infective by aerosol • Person-to-person transmission • Since discontinuation of routine vaccination, a target population is likely to be susceptible 9 Smallpox BW History • French and Indian War: Sir Jeffrey Amherst • American Civil War • Unit 731 • Currently a concern of the United States 10 Smallpox Eradication History • 1796: Edward Jenner vaccination • 1949: last case of smallpox in the United States • 1966: Program begins • 1977: Last endemic case in Somalia • 1978: One “lab” acquired case • 1980: WHO declares eradication • 1989: U.S. military ceases vaccination 11 Smallpox Eradication Success • Effective vaccine • No animal reservoir • Recognizable disease...
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Chapter Powerpoints/Weekly - 1 VIRAL AGENTS SMALLPOX Joan M...

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