Chapter Powerpoints/Weekly

Chapter Powerpoints/Weekly - 1 VIRAL AGENTS SMALLPOX Joan...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 VIRAL AGENTS SMALLPOX Joan M. Culley, PhD, MPH, RN, CWOCN Revised Sept 2010 2 Objectives Define potential biological agents Viral agents Smallpox Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Viral Encephalitis Describe clinical disease and outcomes Discuss diagnostic issues Outline treatment and prophylaxis regimens Describe the use of personal protective procedures to increase protection against biological agents 3 Viruses As Biological Agents Smallpox Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHF) Viral Encephalitides 4 Viruses - General Characteristics RNA or DNA within a protein coat Require a host to function and survive Many viruses attack a specific type of cell causing disease or cancer 5 Viruses - General Characteristics May cause disease through direct effect, immune complex deposition and other effects May result in end-organ system failure, vascular damage Few antiviral medications available Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing infection 6 Criteria for Viruses As Effective BioWarfare (BW) Agents Efficient production Stability High infectivity rates Consistent induction 7 Smallpox One of the largest viruses known History Known for 3000 yrs Europe 710 AD Americas 1520 AD 8 Smallpox As BW Threat WHO: smallpox can be produced and used as a weapon with relatively simple techniques Highly infective by aerosol Person-to-person transmission Since discontinuation of routine vaccination, a target population is likely to be susceptible 9 Smallpox BW History French and Indian War: Sir Jeffrey Amherst American Civil War Unit 731 Currently a concern of the United States 10 Smallpox Eradication History 1796: Edward Jenner vaccination 1949: last case of smallpox in the United States 1966: Program begins 1977: Last endemic case in Somalia 1978: One lab acquired case 1980: WHO declares eradication 1989: U.S. military ceases vaccination 11 Smallpox Eradication Success Effective vaccine No animal reservoir Recognizable disease...
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Chapter Powerpoints/Weekly - 1 VIRAL AGENTS SMALLPOX Joan...

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