INTRO BIOLOGICAL(s)

INTRO BIOLOGICAL(s) - Introduction to Biological Agents...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Biological Agents Joan M. Culley, PhD, MS, MPH, RN, CWOCN Revised Sept 2010 1 Objectives • Discuss the differences/similarities between an intentional biological attack and that of a natural disease outbreak. Identify existing procedures for: prevention, surveillance and response to biological agent attacks. Discuss the factors that make biological agents effective weapons Discuss weaponization Define potential biological agents 2 • • • • The Problem? “The one that scares me to death, perhaps even more than tactical nuclear warfare, and the one we have the least capability against, is biological weapons.” General Colin Powell, Former Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff 3 Biological Warfare Definition The use, for military or The terrorist purposes of living organisms or material organisms derived from them, which are intended to cause death or incapacitation in man, animals or plants. man, 4 Suspected Offensive Biological Weapons Programs Russia China N. Korea Taiwan Cuba Iraq Libya Iran Egypt 5 Soviet Era BW Program “The Soviet Union has developed genetically altered antibiotic resistant strains of anthrax, plague, tularemia… for years it was researching the ways to genetically alter Variola major…” Ken Alibek, 1st Deputy Chief, “Biopreparat” 6 “Poor Man’s Nuke” AGENT TYPE Biological agent Nerve agent Nuclear weapon Conventional COST (US$) 1 600 800 2000 Cost per km2 of casualty area to produce mass casualties 7 Casualties From BW Release 10 kg of B. anthracis spores % Fatality 75 50 24 8 2 40 Km 8 What Makes A Good Biological Agent? • • • • • • Availability or ease of production Incapacitation and/or lethality Easily aerosolized Easily disseminated Stability after production Susceptibility of population 9 CDC Classification of Biological Agents Category A Smallpox Anthrax Plague Botulinum toxin Tularemia Ebola, Marburg Lassa, Junin, Machupo Category B Q Fever Brucellosis Glanders VEE, WEE, EEE Ricin toxin Staph enterotoxin B Cholera Category C Hantavirus Tickborne HF Yellow fever Multi-drug resistant TB 10 Prevention 11 Prevention Vaccines FDA Licensed Anthrax Bubonic plague Smallpox Cholera Yellow Fever Investigational New Drugs Q-Fever Tularemia Smallpox VEE, WEE, EEE Botulinum toxoid CCHF RVF 12 Prevention Individual Protection against Biological Agents Mission ission Oriented riented Protective rotective Posture 13 Skin as a Barrier • Intact skin provides an excellent barrier Intact against biological agents • Exceptions: – T2 mycotoxins penetrate intact skin – Mucous membranes allow passage of Mucous some bacteria, viruses, and toxins – Possible vector-borne delivery Possible – Danger of needlestick injury 14 Prevention Surveillance 15 Epidemiological Surveillance 16 Epidemiological Indicators of BW Attack • • • • Unusual/non-endemic disease Several diseases in same patient Large number of casualties in same area Data suggestive of massive point-source outbreak • Apparent aerosol route of infection Surveillance 17 Epidemiological Indicators of BW Attack • High rate of morbidity/mortality • Illness limited to localized geographical area • Low attack rates in protected personnel • Dead animals of multiple species Surveillance 18 Point Source Outbreak 1400 Surveillance Number of Cases 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Days after exposure 19 Propagated Outbreak 1400 Surveillance Number of Cases 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Days after exposure 20 Immunochromatographic Assay Immunochromatographic (Hand-Held Assay - HHA) Surveillance C T Sample Well (200 ul) 21 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Surveillance ELISA Plate Washer Standard Curve Unknown Standard Curve Unknown Plate Reader 22 Polymerase Chain Reaction Surveillance 23 Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device (RAPID) Surveillance 24 Current Biological Detection Systems Surveillance BIDS (Land System) LR-BSDS (Long Range Stand-Off) IBAD (Shipboard System) 25 Surveillance Portal Shield 26 Response 27 Response • Decontamination • Infection Control – Standard precautions – Droplet precautions – Quarantine • Treatment – Pharmaceutical – Supportive care 28 Summary • • • • Causes for concern Prevention Surveillance Response 29 Questions 30 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2011 for the course NURS 504 taught by Professor Culley during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina.

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INTRO BIOLOGICAL(s) - Introduction to Biological Agents...

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