TOXINS(S) - 1 Biological Toxins Joan M. Culley, PhD, MS,...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Biological Toxins Joan M. Culley, PhD, MS, MPH RN, CWOCN Revised Sept 2010 2 Objectives Define potential toxin threats Describe clinical disease and outcomes Discuss diagnostic issues Outline treatment and prophylaxis regimens Describe the use of personal protective procedures to increase protection against biological agents Toxins - General Characteristics Naturally produced poisons More toxic per weight than manmade chemical agents Non-volatile Minimal absorption in intact skin Not prone to person-to-person transmission 4 Toxins & Chemical Agent Comparison Toxins Natural origin Production more difficult Non-volatile More toxic One agent dermally active Legitimate medical use Diverse toxic effects Effective immunogens Aerosol delivery Chemical Agents Man-made Production difficult (industrial sources) Volatile Less toxic All agents dermally active No use other than weapons Fewer types of effects Poor immunogens Mist/droplet/aerosol delivery 5 Agent LD-50 (g/kg) in mice Botulinum toxin .001 Maitotoxin, Palutoxin, Ciguatoxin 0.1-0.4 C. perfringens toxin 0.1-3.0 Ricin , Conotoxin, Tetrodotoxin, Saxitoxin 2.0-5.0 VX 15.0 Staph enterotoxin B 25.0-30.0 Soman, Sarin 60.0-100.0 T-2 Mycotoxins 1000.0 Toxins & Chemical Agent Lethality Comparison 6 Overview Toxins Of Greatest Concern Botulinum Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) Ricin Trichothecene (T-2) mycotoxins ONE LETHAL DOSE OF VX NERVE AGENT = 15,000 LETHAL DOSES OF BOTULINUM TOXIN Botulinum Toxin - Characteristics Neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum- Botulism Most lethal compound per weight (15,000 times more toxic than the nerve agent VX) Different toxicity if inhaled or ingested 8 Botulinum Toxin What Is It? Organism Clostridium botulinum Spore forming, anaerobic bacteria Produces Botulinum toxin, one of the most toxic substances known Toxin causes disease called botulism Characterized by flaccid or floppy paralysis Extremely rare Usually caused by ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum toxin Also, rarely infections of C. botulinum cause infant botulism and wound botulism 9 Normal Physiology Electrical impulse travels down nerve...
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TOXINS(S) - 1 Biological Toxins Joan M. Culley, PhD, MS,...

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