nurs400threeslides_stats lecture

# nurs400threeslides_stats lecture - INTRODUCTION TO CONCEPT...

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1 INTRODUCTION TO CONCEPT OF STATISTICAL THEORY Abbas S. Tavakoli DrPH, MPH, ME University of South Carolina Presentation Outline Descriptive statistics Frequency distribution Measure of location Inferential Statistics Quick Review bivariate statistics: Example Ttest, Correlation, , Simple linear regression, Anova, and Chi-Square Judging Statistical Suitability Definition of Statistics : Is a field of study concern with the: Collection data Organization data Summarization data Drawing of inferences about a data. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 790 792 810 700 1992 1993 1994 Percentage

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2 Descriptive Statistics: Collection, Organization, summarization, and presentation of data. It is important to describe the data before it perform any statistical test. SAS Inferential Statistics: Drawing of conclusion about an underlying data set when only part of that set has been observed. It is important to use right statistical test. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 790 792 810 700 1992 1993 1994 Percentage Classification of Variables: Discrete (Categorical): Nominal (sex) Ordinal (Severity of disease) Continuous (Numerical): Interval (temperature) Ratio (weight) SAS
3 Classification of Variables: Dependent Variable: Disease Status, Blood pressure, Anxiety, and etc. Can be Discrete or Continuous. Independent Variable: Sex, Race, Income, and etc. Can be Discrete or Continuous. Clinical Uses of Statistics Analyzing research done by nursing staff Reading or critiquing published research Examining outcomes of nursing practice Evaluation Examination of administrative data Demonstrating a problem or need Developing administrative reports Process of Data Analysis Preparing the data for analysis

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4 Process of Data Analysis Describing the sample Process of Data Analysis Exploratory analysis of the data Process of Data Analysis Testing the reliability of measurement
5 Process of Data Analysis Testing hypothesis, research questions, or objectives Process of Translation & Interpretation in Statistics ANALYSIS Clinical Situation Problem Formulation I: The researcher’s version Problem Formulation II: The statistician’s version Translation Interpretation ANSWERS Clinical Situation The researcher’s answer The statistician’s answer Statistical Method Normal Curve - 3 -3 Mean Median Mode -2 -2 -1 -1 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 68.3% 95.5% 99.7% -2.58 -1.96 1.96 2.58

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6 Tailedness One-Tailed Test- .05 Level of Significance Two-Tailed Test- .05 Level of Significance Significantly different from mean Significantly different from mean Significantly different from mean .025 .025 .05 Tail Tail Alpha Risk of making a Type I error a Levels of Significance .05 to .01
7 p-values Probability of a test statistic as large as one calculated -- IF THE NULL HYPOTHESIS IS TRUE Type II Errors Data Analysis Indicates : Results Significant - Null Rejected

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## This note was uploaded on 02/16/2011 for the course NURS 400 taught by Professor Boyd during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina.

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nurs400threeslides_stats lecture - INTRODUCTION TO CONCEPT...

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