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Unformatted text preview: Problems, Questions, & Problems, Questions, & Hypotheses Research Problem Research Problem A research problem is an area of concern where there is a gap in knowledge Needs to pass the “so what” question How do you identify nursing research problems? Sources of Research Sources of Research Problems Clinical practice Professional literature Previous research Colleagues Nursing conferences Significance (so what?) Significance (so what?) Before proceeding, need to determine the significance of your problem Will patient’s, nurses, healthcare community or other benefit from the findings of this study Will the findings be applicable to practice, education, or administration Significance (so what?) Significance (so what?) Will findings extend or support current theory, or generate new theory? Will the findings support current nursing practice or provide evidence for changing current practice? Feasibility Feasibility Before proceeding too far, need to determine the feasibility or whether or not the study can actually be done Factors to consider
– Cost – Availability of participants – Time constrainsts Feasibility Feasibility Factors (cont) – Availability of facilities & equipment – Cooperation of others – Interest of researcher Problem Statement Problem Statement Presents the idea, issue, or situation that the researcher intends to examine in the study It is in the form of a declarative sentence Should include the scope of the problem, the population, the IVs & DVs, question to be answered Criteria of Problems & Criteria of Problems & Problem Statements
1. 2. 3. The problem should express a relation between two or more variables The problem should be stated clearly & unambiguously in question form The problem should imply possibilities or empirical testing Problem Statement Problem Statement Example – The use of alcohol by college freshmen contributes to alcoholelated injuries and ER visits at a state university Research Question Research Question Flows from the problem statement – Is there a difference in selfreported alcohol use between college freshmen who receive brief screening and nursing intervention for alcohol use during fall orientation and the previous class of freshmen students who did not receive brief screening and nursing intervention? Research Question Research Question 2nd question – Is there a difference in alcoholrelated injuries and ER visits between college freshmen who receive brief screening and nursing intervention for alcohol use during fall orientation and the previous class of freshmen students who did not receive brief screening and nursing intervention? Hypotheses Hypotheses A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables Formal statement regarding the expected or predicted relationship between 2 or more variables Comes from the problem statement Hypotheses Hypotheses Predicts the relationship between IV and DV Ex: College Freshmen who took part in a nursing intervention to decrease alcohol use will report fewer alcohol related injuries and ER visits. Types of Hypotheses Types of Hypotheses Associative – Associative assert a relationship between variables so that as one changes, the other changes – Association can be positive or negative – Positive—as one variable increases, the other decreases – Negative—as one increases, the other decreases – ex.: There is a relationship between selfefficacy and adherence to an exercise program. – As selfefficacy increases, adherence to an exercise program increases Types of Hypotheses Types of Hypotheses Causal – In causal hypotheses, one variable, the IV, is thought to cause the other variable, the DV – Ex: College Freshmen who took part in a nursing intervention to decrease alcohol use will report fewer alcoholrelated injuries and ER visits. Types of Hypotheses Types of Hypotheses Directional hypotheses state the direction of the relationship Ex: College Freshmen who took part in a nursing intervention to decrease alcohol use will report fewer alcoholrelated injuries and ER visits. Types of Hypotheses Types of Hypotheses Null or statistical hypothesis States that there is no relationship between 2 variables Statistical testing is used to either accept or reject this statement The research hypothesis states that there is a relationship between 2 variables Importance of Hypotheses Importance of Hypotheses
1. 1. 2. They are the working instruments of theory Hypotheses can be tested & shown to be probably true or false Hypotheses are powerful tools for advancement of knowledge can be deduced from theory & from other hypotheses Virtues of Problems & Virtues of Problems & Hypotheses Hypotheses, if properly stated, can be tested Problems & hypotheses advance scientific knowledge by helping an investigator confirm or disconfirm theory Hypotheses direct inquiry Problems, Values, Problems, Values, Definitions Scientific problems are not moral & ethical questions Are not methodological problems—that is they do not relate to techniques or methods of sampling, measuring, or analyzing Should not be too general nor too specific
– Can detect value questions by words such as should, ought, better than, etc. Questions vs hypotheses Questions vs hypotheses Questions are often used when there isn’t enough known about a phenomenon to formulate a hypothesis What are variables? What are variables? Phenomena that can be directly measured Or indirectly measures by selfreport – Blood pressure, pulse Intelligence, stress, coping What are variables? What are variables? IV= labeled as “X” is the variable that influnences the DV or outcome variable labeled “y” What are variables? What are variables? Confounding or extraneous variables are variables that interfere with the relationship between the IV and DV Sometimes the researchers knows these before hand and controls for them Often not known End of this lecture End of this lecture ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2011 for the course NURS 400 taught by Professor Boyd during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina.
- Spring '11