Chapter Eighteen

Chapter Eighteen - Safety and Health in the Workplace...

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Safety and Health in the Workplace Chapter 18
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Introduction - 1 Worldwide 2.6 billion workers Each year, 270 million occupational injuries, resulting in 351,000 fatalities Each year, 160 million new cases of work- related diseases United States 149+ million workers Next to home, where Americans spend most of their time at work
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Introduction - 2 Occupational disease: an abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by factors associated with employment Occupational injury: injury that results from exposure to a single incident in the work environment
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Scope of the Problem in the U.S. Each day, 16 Americans die from work- related injuries (> 5,700 per year) 4.2 million nonfatal injuries & illnesses per year Rates have dropped greatly over last 100 years, but U.S. behind many other countries Economic costs: $142 billion loss per year; of that, $73 billion in lost wages & productivity, $26 billion in medical expenses, $31 billion in administrative costs
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Importance of Occupational Safety & Health to the Community Workers are a subset of the community population Workers are usually healthiest people in a community; get highest concentration when exposed Hazardous agents can affect areas around workplace; children, elderly & pregnant more sensitive Community disasters
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History of Occupational Safety & Health Problems - 1 Evidence of occupational risks dating back to prehistoric times First significant works describing specific occupational diseases 1561, Agricola’s De Re Metallica, need for mining ventilation 1567, Paracelsus’s On the Miners’ Sickness and Other Miners’ Diseases 1700, Ramazzini’s Discourse on the Diseases of Workers
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History of Occupational Safety & Health Problems - 2 Occupational Safety & Health in the U.S. before 1970 Industrial Revolution: 18th century in Britain, Europe then U.S.; movement from people power to machines Unsafe occupations: mining, iron smelting, & Injuries a concern before diseases
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History of Occupational Safety & Health Problems - 3 Occupational Safety & Health in the U.S. before 1970 (continued) State legislation: in 1835 MA passed child labor law; in 1877 MA passed first worker safety law; 1902 MD became first state to pass workers’ compensation law; 1948 MS became last state to pass workers’ compensation law Alice Hamilton (1869-1970): pioneer in occupational safety & health in U.S.; led crusades to reduce poisonings
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History of Occupational Safety & Health Problems - 4 Occupational Safety & Health in the U.S. before 1970 (continued) Federal legislation: 1884 Bureau of Labor created; 1910 Federal Bureau of Mines; 1914 Office of Most important: Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHAct)
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Year Legislation 1908 Federal Workmen’s Compensation Act
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2011 for the course NURS 231 taught by Professor Hickey during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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Chapter Eighteen - Safety and Health in the Workplace...

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