Chapter Sixteen

Chapter Sixteen - The Impact of the Environment on Human...

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The Impact of the Environment on Human Health Chapter 16
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Introduction - 1 Environmental health defined: study & management of environmental conditions that affect Environmental hazards defined: factors or conditions in the environment that increase the risk of human injury, disease, or death All environment-induced disease is highly preventable
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Introduction - 2 Communities can limit their exposure to environmental hazards by Protecting quality of local water Avoiding accumulation of trash Supporting local wastewater facilities & treatment of stormwater Adopting environmental sound practices for Supporting sustainable development
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Biological hazards : living organisms (& viruses), or their products, that increase the risk of disease of death in humans Environmental sanitation: the practice of establishing & maintaining healthy & hygienic conditions in the environment The mismanagement of wastewater or solid waste can result in epidemic of waterborne, foodborne, & vectorborne diseases
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Waterborne diseases: occur when contaminated water with a disease agent is consumed by a susceptible person, e.g., typhoid & cholera which have killed thousands Waterborne disease outbreak (WBDO): an event in which at least 2 persons experience a similar illness after ingestion of or exposure to water that is the probable cause of the illness; can also be caused by Prevention: appropriate plumbing, wastewater treatment, fluoridation (big boost to dental problems)
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Foodborne diseases: occur when contaminated food with a disease agent is consumed by a susceptible person, e.g., salmonella, E. coli Foodborne disease outbreak (FBDO): the occurrence of 2 or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of food Causes of FBDOs: improper holding temperatures & inadequate cooking of food; also, poor hygiene of food preparers, contaminated equipment, & getting food from an unsafe source (e.g., seafood from polluted waters)
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Foodborne disease outbreaks with known etiology by cause: United States, 1993– 1997. © Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000). “Surveillance for Foodborne
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Chapter Sixteen - The Impact of the Environment on Human...

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