Chapter Three - Epidemiology: The Study of Disease, Injury,...

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Epidemiology: The Study of Disease, Injury, and Death in the Community Chapter 3
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Introduction An epidemiologist is to a population as a doctor is to a patient Study outbreaks of disease, injury, & death in the human population Questions asked by epidemiologists: How many are sick? Who is sick? When did they get sick? Where did they get sick? What do the sick have in common? Epidemiology has been called “population medicine”
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Definitions - 1 Epidemiology “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control health problems (Last, 2001) (Last, 2001) Endemic Diseases– diseases that occur regularly in a population as a matter of course Epidemic– An unexpectedly large number of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior, or other health-related event in a particular population
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Recent Epidemics in the United States
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Definitions - 2 Epidemiologist– “an investigator who studies the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions or events in defined populations” (Last, 2001) Epizootic– outbreak of disease that begins in animals and spreads to humans Pandemic– outbreak of disease over a wide geographical area such as a continent (flu pandemic of 1918-19 killed 25 million people worldwide)
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Brief History of Epidemiology 300 B.C .: Hippocrates, “Father of Medicine,” suggested a relationship between disease & environment After fall of Greece & Rome, there were few advancements in health & medicine, & diseases became linked to spiritual causes 1793: Yellow fever in Philadelphia ; killed 4,044 people; cause (mosquito) discovered in 1901 by Major Walter Reed 1849: Cholera in London; Snow investigated & in 1854 removed Broad Street pump handle; 30 years before Louis Pasteur’s “germ theory”
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Chapter Three - Epidemiology: The Study of Disease, Injury,...

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