NURSING 313-NORMAL CHANGES WITH AGE

NURSING 313-NORMAL CHANGES WITH AGE - Age Related Changes...

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Age Related Changes
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Normal Aging Universal Common and natural process Not due to anything modifiable in the environment Progressive Elderly people in virtually all cultures share some basic needs and interests In some cultures, the aged are the most powerful, the most engaged, and the most respected members of society
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3 Integument Skin Epidermis Keratinocytes become smaller and regeneration slows Dermis Loses about 20% of thickness with aging Hypodermis Lean muscle replaced by fat; subcutaneous fat reduced
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4 Integument Hair Becomes gray as melanin production in hair bulb decreases Diffuse alopecia occurs in both genders with aging Nails Become more brittle, flat and concave Cuticle becomes less thick and wide
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5 Structure of the skin (From Thibodeau GA, Patton KT: ed 5, St Louis, 2003, Mosby.)
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6 Musculoskeletal System Structure and Posture Vertebral disks become thin, causing shortening of trunk Stooped, slightly forward-bent posture common Bones Disequilibrium in bone maintenance develops when resorption is more rapid than deposition of new minerals
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7 Normal spine at age 40 years and osteoporotic changes at ages 60 and 70 years. These changes can cause a loss of as much as 6 to 9 inches in height. Note the exaggerated thoracic and lumbar curves at age 70 years. (From Ignatavicius DD et al: Medical-surgical nursing: a nursing process approach, ed 5, Philadelphia, 2006, Saunders.)
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8 Musculoskeletal System Joints, Tendons, Ligaments Age-related changes in articular cartilage result from biochemical changes Tendons may shorten and move from usual positions Muscles Muscle tissue mass decreases (atrophies) while adipose tissue increases
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9 Cardiovascular System Heart Valves May be thicker and stiffer as result of lipid deposits, collagen degeneration, fibrosis Conductivity SA node cells decrease in number as myocardial fat, collagen, and elastin fibers increase AV node and bundle of His lose conductive cells
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Promoting Heart Health Engage in regular exercise Eat a low-fat, low-cholesterol, balanced diet Maintain tight control of diabetes Do not smoke; avoid exposure to smoke Avoid environmental pollutants Practice stress management Minimize sodium intake Maintain ideal body weight
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11 Cardiovascular System Blood Vessels Elasticity diminished because of changes in collagen, elastin, and possible cross- linking Vessel walls thicken as result of reorganization of cellular and extracellular matrix Pooling of blood increases venous pressure, diminishing effectiveness of peripheral valves
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12 Respiratory System Airways Nose Nose elongates downward as support of upper and lower lateral cartilage weakens Trachea and Larynx Stiffening of larynx and tracheal cartilage occurs as result of calcification
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13 Respiratory System Chest Wall and Lung
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NURSING 313-NORMAL CHANGES WITH AGE - Age Related Changes...

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