Nursing 411-Introduction to Psychiatric Nursing

Nursing 411-Introduction to Psychiatric Nursing -...

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Introduction to Psychiatric Nursing Concepts
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Mental Health Nursing Concepts Mental health is the successful adaptation to stressors from the internal and external environment evidenced by: thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are: age appropriate and congruent with local and cultural norms. Components of mental health are numerous e.g. absence of signs of mental illness, reality orientation, think clearly, relate to others, delay gratification, respect societal rules, be congruent To be mentally healthy a person does not have to exhibit all of the components.
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Mental Health Nursing Concepts Mental disorder is maladaptive responses that interfere with the individuals social, occupational or physical functioning. 5 of top ten disabling conditions are psychiatric-Major Depression, Alcohol abuse/dependence, Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders Horwitz described cultural influences that affect how individuals view mental illness. Incomprehensibility Cultural relativity Stigma is still attached to mental illness Deviant behavior is not mental illness
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Influencing Factors Prenatal and Perinatal: Early alteration in embryonic development account for 30% of MR cases Pregnancy and perinatal factors account for 10% of MR ADHD-prenatal factors and perinatal factors
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Influencing Factors Genetics: Inherited factors Predispositions Limitations Twin, familial and adoption studies suggest a genetic link for many mental illnesses Alcoholism Early onset Alzheimer’s disease
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Influencing Factors Neurobiology Brain abnormalities Hormonal influences Psychoneuroimmunologic factors are the impact of emotional and psychological disturbances on immune system
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Influencing Factors Psychological: Personality traits, IQ, Self-concept, Stressors, Developmental events Sociocultural: Family composition, Culture, Values, Economic level, Support systems Negative influences: Crime, Drugs, Mental disorders, Poverty
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Psychological Adaptation to Stress Healthy individuals want to feel good Healthy individuals want to avoid anxiety, distress, discomfort, and pain Mature adults realize that some negative aspects of life cannot be avoided Anxiety and grief two primary psychological adaptations to stress
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Psychological Adaptation to Stress Anxiety is a diffuse apprehension that is vague in nature and is associated with feelings of uncertainty and helplessness Anxiety is extremely common in our society Peplau defined four levels of anxiety: mild, moderate, severe and panic Mild anxiety is seldom a problem, Associated with tension of day-to-day living Adaptive and can provide motivation for survival
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Psychological Adaptation to Stress Moderate-perceptual field diminishes, less alert to environmental stimuli, some learning can occur Severe-very limited attention span, physical symptoms may be evident Panic-can be a life-threatening situation
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Behavioral Adaptation
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