Edhd320 - Edhd320 Early childhood Physical and cognitive...

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Edhd320 Early childhood Physical and cognitive development in early childhood Motor skill development Gross motor skills Walking, running smoother Catching, throwing, swinging riding Fine motor skills Self-help, dressing, eating Drawing Progression in drawing skills Scribbles – during second year First representational forms Label already made drawings (-3) Draw boundaries and people (3-4) More realistic drawings (preschool to school age) Early printing (3-5) Piaget’s preoperational stage 2-7 biggest change: Gains in mental representation Gains in make-believe play Pretend with less realistic toys, can use a cup as a hat Limitations in thought-cannot perform mental operations Egocentrism – belief that their perspective is the only one, and the world revolves around them; failure to distinguish the symbolic points of view of others from one’s own Animistic thinking – inanimate objects have lifelike qualities such as thoughts, wishes, and feelings Conservation – fixation on one property of a thing and ignorance of another; when one physical property of something changes they think that another has changed even thought it has stayed the same. Hierarchical classification - fail to understand how to organize things into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences Vytgotsky’s sociocultural theory Private speech – their own speech to guide their behavior, use it more often when you are doing something difficult Zone of proximal development Scaffold- support children to help them with development; adjusting the level of difficulty to appropriate their level of performance
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Improvements in information processing Attention Can resist fixating on one dominant stimulus to pay attention to other things Planning – thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal (they become better at it but still have a long way to go) Aren’t thorough enough, and cant decide order of tasks Memory – recognition is remarkable, recall is still poor Memory strategies- rarely use Everyday experience- scripts (general descriptions of what occurs in particular situations) Theory of mind Metacognition- thinking about thought, they realize that they can think about something without seeing it. Advances age (4-6) Emerging literacy – figuring out how written symbols convey meaning Mathematical reasoning Ordinality- order relationships between quantities (3 is more than 2 is more than 1) Counting Cardinality- the last number in a sequence indicates the quantity of items in that set Language Development Vocabulary 2-6 child learns about 5 new words a day fast-mapping – connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter Grammar Forming novel sentences with verbs they have learned, changing the tense.
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