Cholera2011ToPost-2 - Lecture 4, January Todays Outline...

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Lecture 4, January Today’s Outline Cholera Epidemiology 1854 outbreak John Snow Henry Whitehead Cholera today Announcements Discussion DF p.67- 107 Exam 1 approaching Good Book “The Ghost Map” by Steven Johnson
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Clinical features diarrhea vomiting (early) dehydration death
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Diarrhea early on, fecal and malodorous later “rice water stool” painless non-straining sometimes a little cramping Massive can be more than 1/5 of your entire weight in a single day!
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Dehydration symptoms sunken eyes and cheeks slow “pinch response” rapid and weak or missing pulse can be diagnosed on sight! Death can occur in 12 hours or less (but can be treated with rehydration)
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Origins of Cholera Known since ancient times in India (500 B.C.) Doesn’t appear in Europe until the 1800s Why? The shipping routes were better established and disease could spread more efficiently There have been 7 pandemics since the 1800s
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Definitions Endemic When a disease maintains a steady, low-level frequency at a moderately regular interval. Malaria is a constant worry in parts of Africa. Epidemic An outbreak affecting many people at once and a sudden increase in the occurrence of the disease above the expected level. Pandemic An increase in disease occurrence with a large population over a very wide region.
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Cholera in Britain First appears on British soil in 1830s First epidemic (1831-1833) > 20,000 deaths Second epidemic (1848-1849) > 50,000 Third epidemic (1852-1859) We’ll focus on London
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London in the 1800s Explosive growth Crowded cities Row houses separated by narrow alleys One family per room Common outside water supplies and privies
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The Sanitation Issue So much waste and too little space The scavengers of London Mudlarks, pure-finders, sewer hunters, bone collectors Night soil men--the elite Too costly to pay the night-soil men Waste accumulates in cesspools
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Miasmatic Theory of Cholera Von Pettenkofer’s “experiment” Drank vial of pure V.Cholerae (no ill effects) No mention of student who did the same
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 118 taught by Professor Spillane during the Winter '10 term at University of Michigan.

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Cholera2011ToPost-2 - Lecture 4, January Todays Outline...

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