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Unformatted text preview: Ethical standards Ethical standards
• All studies undergo rigorous ethical review • Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) review proposed research in terms of ethical standards • Researchers must submit detailed plans • Several societies/associations publish ethical guidelines Ethical issues: Ethical issues: Nonharmful procedures
• Researchers cannot use procedures that harm children physically or psychologically • The least stressful procedure must be used; if undue stress is involved, there must be a direct benefit to the child • The risks and benefits must be carefully considered by the IRB Informed consent Informed consent
• Child and parents must be told about all aspects of the study that may influence their decision to participate • Freedom to choose whether or not to participate and to discontinue at any time • Assent should be obtained from younger children who may not understand all aspects of the study Confidentiality/anonymity Confidentiality/anonymity
• All information should be kept confidential, except in emergencies (discussed in the informed consent) • Data collected should not be attached to identifying information – For longitudinal research, may need one file that connects id numbers to name/address Vignette 1: Vignette 1:
To obtain a control group for a hospitalized experimental treatment group, the investigators approached parents in a low income neighborhood and offered them several hundred dollars if they would allow their babies to undergo periodical laboratory tests, some of which involved considerable discomfort. Vignette 2: Vignette 2:
Tenth graders were recruited during school for a study in which they reported on their sexual activity and romantic relationships. Just prior to completing the questionnaire, adolescents were required to sign a consent form which included statements such as “participatory negative junctions”. Vignette 3: Vignette 3:
Children in a 3rd grade classroom were recruited for a study on friendship. Parents and children were informed that children who agreed to participate in the study would be allowed to have an ice cream party and see a movie afterwards. Children who did not participate would have to sit in another room and do their homework instead. Parents and children were asked to consent to the study. Vignette 4: Vignette 4:
Adolescents and their parents came into a researcher’s laboratory to complete questionnaires on substance use. There were lines for name and birth date on the top of each of the 10 questionnaires. Adolescents were instructed to hand their parents their completed questionnaires and parents turns in all questionnaires at the end of the study. ...
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- Fall '09