NewLecture 1 - Psy and Science

NewLecture 1 - Psy and Science - Psychology and Science...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology and Science Psychology and Science Is psychology a science? 2. Do we characterize science by its method or subject matter? 3. What does psychology study? ­ brain and behavior (human and animal) 1. Which of the following would be considered experimental psy? 1. 2. 3. 4. Testing the running time of a rat in a maze when the rat has been given various drugs. Testing reaction time of sleep deprived people. Measuring the electrical conductance of a neuron in the brain. Recording people’s reactions to a socially awkward situation. Cont. Measuring the effectiveness of 2 different types of therapy for patients with depression. 2. Finding out the lowest amount of light that can be perceived by the eye. 3. Making sure questions on a standardized aptitude test are worded clearly. 4. Surveying people about consumer habits. 1. Cont. Testing to see which color of paint makes workers more productive. 2. Measuring how prejudice attitudes change in individuals when put in a group situation. 1. Psy and Science Experimental psy. is a general term that refers to ANY area that applies the scientific method to conducting research. Areas of Psychology Clinical Developmental Counseling Health Social Cognitive Educational Industrial/Organizational Physiological/Biological Evolutionary Neuroscience I. The Scientific Method Theory, Hypothesis, Operational Definitions, Observation/Experiment, Replication A. The scientific method is based on the following assumptions: 1. Order – the world is ordered and systematic (randomness is minimal) 2. Determinism – all events have a cause Cont. Empiricism – observation leads to measurement leads to data 2. Parsimony – simple explanations to natural phenomena are preferred to complex explanations 1. II. Reliability & Validity Make sure conclusions you make about your research are reliable and valid. A. Reliability – Consistency of an experiment or test (i.e. does it measure the same thing every time and for all participants) B. Validity – Does the test or experiment measure what you think it is measuring? III. In which of the following situations is the scientific method legitimately applied? 1. Three parents at a PTA meeting tell Susan that their ADHD children are less hyperactive if they don’t eat foods containing red dye. As a result, Susan stops giving her son red dye­containing foods such as M&Ms. “0” = not scientific “1” = scientific Cont. 1. Roger is a major league pitcher on a six­ game winning streak. During the streak he has worn the same unwashed pair of leopard skin bikini briefs in each start. Roger is convinced the dirty undies are causing him to pitch better. “0” = not scientific “1” = scientific Cont. 1. Coca Cola conducts a blind taste test for different colas in the local mall. Tasters are given a small amount of cola in a glass with the simple label of A, B, C, etc. and asked to rate the quality of each one on a scale of 1­7. They conclude that Coca Cola is the most preferred. “0” = not legitimate; “1” = legitimate 1. a. b. c. d. e. Bob observes monkeys eating bananas in the jungle. Which of following conclusions would be the most scientifically valid? Bananas are monkey’s favorite food Monkeys eat bananas because they are hungry Monkeys must eat bananas in order to survive None of the above Monkeys eat bananas Cont. Cont. 1. Rats are given one of three doses of a drug (0 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg) and run a maze which has food at the end. Researchers observe that the highest dose of the drug leads to the longest running times in the maze. “0” = not scientific “1” = scientific ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course PYSC 226 taught by Professor Levens during the Fall '09 term at South Carolina.

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