Unformatted text preview: Introduction Introduction
Definitions, History I. Definitions I.
Question: Could a species survive without Question: learning? learning? Q: What if an animal learned initially but then Q: stopped learning? stopped Answers: No. Learning helps organisms adapt to their Learning environment (survival). Involves withholding responses as well as making new responses. responses Cont. Cont.
Discussion: What is something you have learned Discussion: that helps your survival? that Definition Definition
An enduring change in behavior involving An specific stimuli and/or responses that results from prior experience with those (or similar) stimuli and responses. stimuli Learning … 1. must be studied with experimental must techniques. techniques. 2. is governed by universal principles (General is Process Approach). Process Cont. Cont.
These are not considered learning: Performance – behavior not determined solely Performance by learning by Fatigue Change in stimulus conditions Change in motivational state Maturation II. History II. History
Descartes (17th century) – not all human behavior governed by free will – humans also responded involuntarily to external stimuli - Dualism Dualism - Animals – no free will B. Nativism vs. empiricism (tabula rasa)
A. Cont. Cont.
A. A. Association –simple sensations become Association complex ideas via associations (empiricists) complex 1. Rules - contiguity, similarity, and contrast - today we know contiguity is very imp. for today learning – contrast is not learning Reflexes – innate and fixed Reflexes – Pavlov disproved this and found that reflexes can be learned reflexes III. Why Animals? III. Why Animals?
Contributions of animal experiments Insulin Blood pressure medication Asthma Psychoactive effects of drugs Chemotherapy Cataract surgery Kidney dialysis Neural development
A. Vaccines for polio and rabies Organ transplants Contributions cont. Contributions cont.
Coronary bypass surgery Helplessness & Depression Stroke and head injury rehab techniques Drug Addiction Benefits to animals (veterinary and wildlife Benefits protection) protection) Animals cont. Animals cont.
A. Rationale for Use of Animals 1. Similar physiological systems 2. Need a whole living organism 3. Experimental control Animals cont. Animals cont.
C. Animal welfare – assuring the health and C. well-being of animals well-being Humane Treatment of Animals Federally regulated - Animal Welfare Act of Federally 1985 1985 “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Guide Animals” – U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services Services 1. regulates elimination/alleviation of pain Animals cont. Animals cont.
a. a. All animal research must be supervised by All someone trained in research methods and has animal experience animal - all individuals under supervision of a psy. all are properly trained are Psy make reasonable efforts to minimize the Psy discomfort, infection, illness, and pain of animal subjects animal Animals cont. Animals cont.
a. b. c. Procedures using pain, stress, or privation are Procedures only used when an alternative procedure is unavailable and the research is justified. unavailable Surgery is performed under anesthesia and Surgery care is taken to avoid infection. care When an animal’s life must be terminated, it When is done rapidly under humane conditions. is Animals cont. Animals cont.
a. The three “R’s” Reduction – reduce the number of animals Reduction being used being Refinement – make procedures as pain- and Refinement stress-free as possible stress-free Replacement – can you use animals lower on Replacement the phylogenetic scale? the Animals cont. Animals cont.
1. 2. Lists standards for sanitization, health, cage Lists size, veterinary care size, Local Animal Care and Use Committees - review research protocols, conduct review inspections inspections Animals cont. Animals cont.
A. Alternatives to Research with Animals 1. Natural observation 2. Plants 3. Computer simulations 4. Humans Animals cont. Animals cont.
A. Other Observations 1. less than 1% of animals killed by humans 1. annually are involved in teaching or research annually 2. 90% used for research are rats and mice 3. 94% of animal research does not involve 3. pain pain 4. 100 years ago 50% of Americans died by 4. age 50, today only 10% age ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course PYSC 400 taught by Professor Levens during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.
- Spring '10