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Unformatted text preview: Classical Conditioning:
Mechanisms I. Beyond the basic CSUS relationship
A. Stimulus generalization – how well does a stimulus similar to the CS elicit a CR? Examples? B. Secondorder conditioning – a stimulus that predicts the CS comes to elicit a CR Light Food; Light = Excitement Tone Light ; Tone = Excitement Examples? II. Effective CS’s and US’s
Novelty CS and USpreexposure effects – prior exposure decreases response B. Intensity and Salience – more intense CS/US = more intense CR/UR C. Belongingness D. Biological Strength
A. III. Nature of the CR
A. Stimulus substitution – the CSUS association turns the CS into a substitute US – thus US determines CR CS activates neural circuits previously activated by the US and thus elicits responses similar to the US CS US circuits UR Jenkins & Moore (1973) – Pigeons had different CR’s depending on whether US was food or water But, CR is not always same as UR! III. Cont.
CS Determines Form of CR Timberlake & Grant (1975) – a rat was used as a CS to predict food for another hungry rat If stimulussubstitution was always correct, what CR would it predict?
A. III. Cont.
A. Behavior Systems Presentation of a US activates the behavior system relevant to that US Female sexual behavior system (courtship, mounting, copulation) Food feeding behavior system (foraging, salivation, chewing, swallowing) III. Cont. Thus, a CS will activate behaviors relevant to that system CSUS interval can affect CR CSUS Interval CR 1 min Male approached CS and stayed near it 20 min Male moved around entire cage more III. cont
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- Spring '10