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Lecture 6 - Operant Conditioning

Lecture 6 - Operant Conditioning - Operant(Instrumental...

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Unformatted text preview: Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning Conditioning Definition Definition Presentation of a US depends on the Presentation subject’s behavior. A particular response (instrumental response) is required to obtain a specific stimulus or consequence. consequence. I. Procedures I. A. Positive reinforcement – An instrumental A. response increases in likelihood as a result of a stimulus being presented following the response and not presented in the absence of the response. in I. cont. I. B. Negative reinforcement – if the B. instrumental response is performed, the aversive stimulus is terminated or prevented from occurring. prevented C. Punishment – Occurrence of the C. instrumental response results in delivery of an aversive stimulus. of I. cont. I. D. Omission Training – instrumental D. response prevents delivery of a pleasant or appetitive stimulus – differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) reinforcement Good Bad Give Positive Reinforcement Punishment Take Omission Negative Reinforcement II. Training Question: How do you get a rat to press a bar to obtain food? obtain Two Stages 1. Magazine training – classical conditioning Magazine (sign tracking) (sign 2. Shaping – development of a new response Shaping through positive reinforcement of successive approximations approximations III. History III. Thorndike (early 1900’s) – put kitties into Thorndike boxes Video Clip Now Video - Law of Effect – if a response in the Law presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened IV. Paradigms IV. A. Discrete-Trial Procedures – Discrete-Trial instrumental response is performed once and animal is removed from apparatus apparatus - Mazes – runway, T-maze, radial arm Mazes maze maze How is conditioning measured? - running speed, latency to leave start running box box Runway S G IV. cont IV. A. Free-Operant Procedures Animal can repeat instrumental Animal behavior over and over again behavior - Skinner box How is conditioning measured? Frequency of operant response – lever Frequency press, pecking of key light, stepping on treadle treadle Terms Terms Primary reinforcer – innately reinforcing Primary stimulus (biological) stimulus Conditioned reinforcer – a stimulus that Conditioned gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer association ...
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