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Lecture 7 - OC Fundamentals

Lecture 7 - OC Fundamentals - Operant Conditioning Operant...

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Unformatted text preview: Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Fundamentals I. I. A. Fundamentals Instrumental Response 1. Positive reinforcement can be obtained through either a stereotypic response or variability of responses 2. Belongingness – certain responses belong with certain reinforcers due to evolution Ex: Stickleback fish (Sevenster, 1973) I. cont. I. cont. 1. Instinctive Drift – operant response drifts from original to a more species­ typical (instinctive) response Behavior systems – operant response will match that of the activated system ­ rats and ball bearings I. cont. I. cont. A. Instrumental Reinforcer 1. quantity and quality of reinforcer – can increase rate of responding or speed of responding (maze) 2. positive and negative contrast – responding is in part dictated by previous experience I. cont. I. cont. Positive Contrast Prev. Reinforcer Current Responding Less attractive More attractive Increased Negative Contrast More attractive Less attractive Decreased Examples? I. cont. I. cont. Response­Reinforcer Relation 1. Temporal contiguity – immediate reinforcement is better than delayed (Behavioral Economics) 2. Response­reinforcer contingency – if response results in reinforcer, response more likely to occur again (if positive reinforcement) A. I. Cont. I. Cont. Controllability of reinforcer – learned helplessness effect – exposure to inescapable shock disrupted subsequent learning ­ human terms – people believe they have no control over their environment thus, they stop trying Poverty, depression, combat, procrastination a. I. cont. I. cont. Internal vs. external locus of control – fairly stable personality trait Internal – outcomes occur due to own efforts External – outcomes outside of own control – chance, luck, destiny I. cont. I. cont. ­ ­ External more likely to use emotion­ focused coping strategies (procrastination) Tice & Baumeister (1997) ...
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