Lecture 10 - Punishment

Lecture 10 - Punishment - Punishment Punishment Chapter 9 I...

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Unformatted text preview: Punishment Punishment Chapter 9 I. Types I. Reinforcement that decreases behavior A. Positive Punishment Positive B. Negative Punishment (Omission) – loss B. Negative of a positive reinforcer (R) of 1. Time-out – loss of access to + R - If poorly applied, produces little effect, If for example . . . I. Types I. a. If time-out setting is more reinforcing a. (i.e. bedroom over dinner table) (i.e. b. If time-out is too long (time should be b. spent reinforcing appropriate behaviors) spent 2. Response cost – removal of a specific 2. R following the occurrence of a problem behavior – R most be clearly identified I. Types I. A. Intrinsic Punishment – involves an Intrinsic inherent aspect of behavior that is being punished being - pulling an all-nighter to write a paper A. Extrinsic Punishment – punishment that Extrinsic follows the behavior follows - getting an F on that paper I. Types I. A. Primary (unconditioned) Punisher – Primary innately punishing stimulus – shock, heat, loud noise heat, B. Secondary (conditioned) Punisher – Secondary becomes punishing through association – icy stare from mom, girlfriend, teacher icy II. Problems II. A. Punishment of inappropriate behavior Punishment does not strengthen occurrence of correct behavior correct B. Punisher could become a discriminative Punisher stimulus for punishment – unwanted behavior is only suppressed when that person is present person II. Problems II. A. Punishment might teach avoidance of Punishment the person giving it the B. Punishment elicits strong emotional Punishment response response C. Punishment can elicit aggression D. Teaches that punishment is an Teaches acceptable means of controlling behavior – child abuse behavior II. Problems II. G. Punishment reinforces the person G. using it because it produces immediate effects effects III. Benefits III. A. Punishment can sometimes lead to an Punishment increase in social behavior increase B. Punishment sometimes leads to Punishment improvement in mood improvement C. Punishment can increase attention to Punishment environment environment IV. Effective Use IV. A. Make immediate – not delayed Make (especially w/ young kids and animals) (especially B. Should follow each occurrence of Should behavior initially C. Should be intense enough from the C. Should outset to suppress the target behavior outset D. Negative (omission) is preferable to Negative positive positive IV. Effective Use IV. A. Accompany with an explanation if Accompany possible possible B. Combine with + reinforcement of Combine appropriate behavior appropriate V. Theories V. A. Conditioned Suppression – P does not Conditioned weaken behavior but produces an emotional reaction that interferes with the occurrence of the behavior the B. Avoidance Theory – The avoidance Avoidance response consists of any behavior other than the behavior being punished. Thus, P does not weaken behavior. Thus, V. Theories V. A. The Premack Approach – a lowprobability behavior can be used to probability punish high-probability behavior punish - Imagine how much weight you would lose if you had to run a mile for eating something not on your diet (assuming you hate exercising) you - Behavior is weakened Behavior ...
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