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Unformatted text preview: Memory – Encoding, Storage, Retrieval Memory Shortterm memory – Stores a limited amount of info for no more than about 30 sec without rehearsing it. Longterm memory – Stores an unlimited amount of info for perhaps a lifetime. Types of Memory
Declarative (Explicit) – facts or events 1. Episodic – when and where of your life happenings; autobiographical 2. Semantic – persons knowledge about the world; facts B. Nondeclarative (Implicit) – no conscious recollection; how to ride a bike A. Cont.
Sensory – lasts up to several seconds Echoic – auditory Iconic visual
I. II. III. Encoding Storage Retrieval I. Encoding
Automatic vs. Effortful Examples:??? A. Rehearsal – amnt learned = time spent learning B. Spacing effect – rehearsal works best when spaced out C. Serial position effect I. Encoding
Encoding Strategies 1. Meaning – think of examples that are personally meaningful 2. Imagery – mental images help us remember better – mnemonics A. Organizing Info. 1. Chunking (acronyms) 2. Hierarchies
A. Chunking Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer are in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae we do not raed ervey lteter by it slef but the wrod as a wlohe and the biran fguiers it out aynawy. Chunking Memorize this number in 10 seconds 121520971879 II. Storage
A. Semantic network theories – items of knowledge are interconnected via associations, relationships, or pathways Ex. – chair and table vs table and aardvark Ex. – separate modules for different grammatical classes? (i.e. nouns and verbs) II. Cont. Patients with specific neuronal damage may have trouble mispronouncing, misspelling, misreading, or not recognizing verbs. “There was a crack in the mirror” – patient could read “Don’t crack the nuts in here.” – patient couldn’t read II. Cont.
A. Longterm potentiation – increase in synaptic efficiency RNA synthesis increases during learning enriched rats DNA Transcription mRNA Translation Polypeptide Chain (Protein) Includes receptors, dendrites, membranes etc II. Cont.
C. Short term memory – 7 +/ 2 units Decays rapidly over time Needs rehearsal to become longterm II. Storage
Where in the brain? Everywhere Hippocampus Amygdala – emotional memories Cortex Cerebellum – motor (riding a bicycle)
A. III. Retrieval
A. Factors that affect retrieval 1. Distinctiveness – flashbulb memories, von Restorff effect 2. Testing effects – retrieval is helped by previous retrieval 3. Retrieval cues – (Priming –”wakening of associations”) III. Retrieval a. Associations – tablechair b. Encoding Specificity – Cues present at encoding will help with retrieval Context (music, odor, temperature, time ofday, body kinesthetic, pain) Mood State (drunk or high) All have found that retrieval is better under matching conditions Mistaken recall of some stimulus or event that did not actually occur Elizabeth Loftus – reconstruction of memory Eyewitness testimony “Did you see a barn in the film?” – direct “Did you see a station wagon parked in front of the barn? – false presupposition Answered yes: direct 15.6%, false 29.2%, control 8.4% IV. False Retrieval Forgetting
Proactive and retroactive interference Examples:??? A. Misinformation – incorporating misleading info into one’s memory of an event B. Source amnesia – attribution of a wrong source to an event
A. Time B. Repressed memories younger than 3 – don’t believe it drugs or hypnosis – don’t believe it 3 Explanations 1. Memory was forgotten 2. Forgetting and avoiding thinking about something are different 3. The event never happened A. Forgetting Improving Your Memory Study repeatedly Spend more time actively thinking about the material Make the material personally meaningful Mnemonic devices Improving Your Memory Activate retrieval cues (mood, context, priming) Minimize interference (study before sleeping) Test yourself, especially recall ...
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- Spring '10