C3 Social Perceptions pt 2 for BB

C3 Social Perceptions pt 2 for BB - Perceiving and...

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Unformatted text preview: Perceiving and Understanding Others Chapter Three SOCIAL PERCEPTION: Self­Serving Bias Self­Serving Bias Tendency to attribute one’s successes to internal factors (i.e., ability) and one’s failures to external factors (i.e., bad luck or task difficulty) Self­Serving Bias Self­Serving Bias In a systematic analysis of newspaper articles describing 33 major baseball and football games in the fall of 1977, quotations from both players and coaches differed considerably depending on whether their teams won our lost. 100% 80% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% Internal explanations Internal were most likely after victories. External explanations victories. External were most likely after defeats. after Self Serving Bias Victory Victory Defeat Internal Internal Victory Defeat Explanations Explanations External External Explanations Explanations Lau and Russell (1980) • The self­serving bias can be adaptive Advantages and Advantages and Disadvantages • The self­serving bias can be maladaptive Four explanations: Fundamental Attribution Bias or Fundamental Attribution Bias or Correspondence bias ◦ Behavior is more noticeable than situational factors ◦ People assign insufficient weight to situational causes even when they are made aware of them ◦ People are cognitive misers ◦ Language is richer in trait­like terms to explain behavior than situational terms Combining Information About Others IMPRESSION FORMATION IMPRESSION FORMATION AND IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT: COMBINING INFORMATION ABOUT OTHERS The Beginning of Research on The Beginning of Research on First Impressions Asch’s study: “How do we form unified impressions of others in a quick and seemingly effortless way?” Central and peripheral traits How quickly do we form these How quickly do we form these first impressions? Todorow, Mandisodza, Goren, & Hall, (2005) Willis & Todorov (2006) Very quickly Implicit Personality Theories Implicit Personality Theories Schemas that shape first impressions: People focus first on information ◦ Beliefs about what traits or characteristics tend to go together ◦ These theories are similar to a schema ◦ Implicit theories can influence the impressions of others more than people’s actual traits about others’ traits, values, and principles How do we “look good” to How do we “look good” to others? Self-enhancement—boost one’s appeal to others Boost physical appearance, boast about abilities Other-enhancement—induce positive moods in others Use flattery, express liking, agree with their view If overused, tactics can boomerang ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course PYSC 430 taught by Professor Bessellieu during the Spring '10 term at South Carolina.

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C3 Social Perceptions pt 2 for BB - Perceiving and...

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