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Unformatted text preview: Reconstruction Reconstruction
Chapter 18 End of civil war End
• End of Civil War statistics: Union casualties 664,928, Confederacy 483,026. Approx 620,000 died. • Total cost of war 20 billion; southern states owed over 700 million in war debt • Innovation from war: Rail lines, telegraph system, standardization of mail, clothing sizes. New pastimes: sports (baseball soared), photography, steel & textile production • Change in concept of America as one nation united emancipation emancipation
• End of Slavery
• Emancipation applies to areas under Confederate control; gave war a moral purpose • African Americans entered the Union’s military, becoming literate, become familiar with process of protest, stake claim to citizenship • Reconstruction’s leaders often come from Af American’s service in the military Presidential reconstruction Presidential
• Lincoln’s policy: 10% who voted in 1860 to secede had to swear loyalty to the Union, excluding high ranking Confed officials • Johnson: Amnesty to southern leaders who take oath of loyalty; excluded Confed officials and wealthy elite • Provisional governors hand picked by Johnson until state elections were held Radical reconstruction Radical
• Congressional Reconstruction
• Pardoning system fails, black codes, Johnson disregards Congress • They enact & pass 14th Amendment, Reconstruction Act 1867, 15th Amendment • Congressional Reconstruction continues until 1877 presidential election: Compromise of 1877 • Rutherford B Hayes (R) chosen if Republicans leave the South. Reconstruction ends. The Republican record The
• Republican Record: education, reconstruction, industrial development. African American citizenship, voting rights • Lost political support for Reconstruction: Native American wars; passage of 15th amendment; depression of 1873 • Southern white secret societies: Klan, Redshirts, the Mississippi Plan freedmen in Recon. South freedmen
• Freedman’s Bureau: 1865, federal institution to provide former slaves with assistance in food, transportation, getting jobs & fair wages • Social life: fraternities, churches, clubs, reestablish familial ties • Economic life: most still laborers dependent on white landowners • Politics: black vote large part of Republican support. In SC only state with black majority in Congress • Women: critical role providing for family; influenced the vote White response to reconstruction reconstruction
• Lost Cause: cultural movement, emphasis on nobility of Confederate leaders, states rights more than slavery as cause for war, benevolence of slavery • Black codes: passed by state legislatures starting in fall 1865, severe restrictions on Af American freedom • Agricultural system: cycle of perpetual debt; fixed rate tenants rented land for fixed amount; share tenants rented for share of output. Most common were sharecroppers, had nothing but own labor. ...
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