urbanization - system. Use chain-of-command system to reach...

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Chapter 21
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Vertical growth: see rise of “cloudscrapers” buildings up to 10 stories, then “skyscrapers” 30 stories by end of century h Horizontal growth: Urban Transportation: electric streetcars in 1880s, subways 1890s, large river bridges in 1880s Residential Segregation: change walking tenements
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Disease: rise of cholera, typhoid, yellow fever epidemics in slums h Waste: trash and sewage carried disease, see cities create sewer & water systems to combat it h Fire: tragic fire in Chicago (1871), also San Francisco (1906 earthquake) rise in fires; cities create municipal fire depts h Crime: rise of gangs; murder rate increased 4x from 1880 to 1900 as dropping in Europe; urban riots; lead to rise of municipal police depts
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Growth of the Urban Machine: see rise of political machine, or boss
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Unformatted text preview: system. Use chain-of-command system to reach voters, provide services h Tradeoff Voter Fraud: use means of fraud to ensure bosses stayed in power Graft: financial corruption used to swindle cities out of millions; record example is Boss William Tweed of NY city, stole millions from city Middle class weathered panics, moved to suburbs & conserved money; h Mass Consumerism: introduction of branded goods & high quantities, consumed by middle class who could modestly afford them. See dept stores, grocery stores & mail order catalogues. Products consumed: once made at home, new versions of things already used, or Mass Advertising: businesses turned to advertising in heavy volume: $200 million in 1880 to $3 billion in 1920 h Middle Class Values: family, cleanliness & security...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course HIST 112 taught by Professor Littlefield during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.

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urbanization - system. Use chain-of-command system to reach...

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