Exam 3 notes - Sensation: a simple awareness due to the...

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Sensation: a simple awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ. Perception: the organization, identification and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation. Transduction: what takes place when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system. Psychophysics: methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer’s sensitivity to that stimulus. Absolute Threshold: the minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus. Just Noticeable Difference (JND): the minimal chance in a stimulus that can just barely be detected. It’s not a fixed quantity; rather, it depends on how intense the stimuli being measured are and on the particular sense being measured. Weber’s Law: the just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity Signal Detection Theory: holds that the response to a stimulus depends both on a person’s sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person’s response criterion. o This allows researchers to quantify an observer’s response in the presence of noise. o EXAMPLE: if the light is presented and the observer responds, “Yes,” the outcome is a hit . If the light is presented and the observer says, “No,” the result is a miss . However, if the light is not presented and the observer nonetheless says it was, a false alarm has occurred. Finally, if the light is not presented and the observer responds, “No,” a correct refection has occurred. The observer accurately detected the absence of the stimulus. o Proposes a way to measure Perceptual Sensitivity separately from the observer’s decision-making strategy. Perceptual Sensitivity: how effectively the perceptual system represents sensory events. Sensory Adaption: the observation that sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions. Visual Acuity: the ability to see fine detail. THREE PROPERTIES TO LIGHT WAVES: o Length : determines its hue, or what humans perceive as color o Amplitude/Intensity : how high it peaks, determines what we perceive as the brightness of light o Purity : number of wavelengths that makes up the light, corresponds to what humans perceive as saturation or the richness of colors. Retina: light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball.
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o the muscles change the shape of the lens to focus objects at different distances, making the lens flatter for objects that are far away or rounder for nearby objects. This is called Accommodation , the process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina.
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Boyle during the Fall '10 term at Loyola Chicago.

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Exam 3 notes - Sensation: a simple awareness due to the...

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