Unformatted text preview: Endangered Species Act (ESA) Endangered Species Act (ESA)
Passed in 1973 Protects endangered and threatened species and their habitats (Critical habitats “all areas essential to the conservation”) Total endangered U.S. species = 1574 (975 animals, 599 plants) Threatened U.S. species = 351 (154 animals, 146 plants) Endangered Species Act (ESA) Endangered Species Act (ESA) As of 2008, 44 species have been delisted due to 19 recovery 9 extinction (seven of which were extinct prior to being listed) 10 changes in taxonomic classification 5 discovery of new populations 1 error in the listing rule 1 an amendment to the Endangered Species Act Wilderness Act of 1964 Wilderness Act of 1964 Provides for permanent protection of undeveloped and unexploited areas so that natural ecological processes can operate freely. 5% of land area in U.S. Preservation not conservation Chapter 11 Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration Ecosystem Capital: Use and Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration Global perspective on biological systems Conservation, preservation, restoration Biomes and ecosystems under pressure Public and private lands in the United States Ecosystems and their use Ecosystems and their use Ecosystems as natural resources Natural resources: Naturally occurring commodities that are exploited for their economic value (e.g., minerals, energy, land, water, and biota) Ecosystems are more than the sum of their natural resources. Complex interactions create scale dependent processes ECOSYSTEM SERVICES (e.g., storm protection, water purification, biological Ecosystems and their use Ecosystems and their use From natural resources to ecosystem capital Naturally occurring commodities (i.e., natural resources) will be exploited for economic value, however, proper stewardship requires this be done without diminishing ecosystem functions/processes. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES (e.g., storm protection, water purification, biological effects on climatic) Why? Another issue of scale Another issue of scale Value markets excellent mechanism for resources, poor at ecosystem services. Why is this? Another issue of scale Another issue of scale Value markets excellent mechanism for resources, poor at ecosystem services. Why is this? Clearly defined and immediate returns are easy to quantify. E.g., the price a developer receives for building and selling a waterfront property (can be quantified as $/acre, jobs generated, revenue/county). Another issue of scale Another issue of scale Value markets excellent mechanism for resources, poor at ecosystem services. Why is this? A single “property” has a clear value, but its loss or degradation will have little observable effect on ecosystem service. Scale transition Many independent properties, big effect on service (storm protection). Economic impact is delayed and diffuse. Another issue of scale Another issue of scale Value markets excellent mechanism for resources, poor at ecosystem services. Why is this? The value of many ecosystem services are not apparent at small scales and thus not understood until it is too late. Services from various types of ecosystems Some of the known Ecosystems Some of the known Ecosystems Services Modification of climate Maintenance of hydrological cycle Erosion control and soil building Maintenance of oxygen and nitrogen cycles Waste treatment Pest management Carbon storage and maintenance of carbon cycle Wetland Services Wetland Services
Valued at $100,000 per acre per year Water purification and fish propagation Conservation, Preservation, Conservation, Preservation, Restoration Conservation versus preservation Patterns of use of natural ecosystems Restoration Conservation: managing or regulating use so that it does not exceed the capacity of the species or system to renew itself. Preservation: ensure species or ecosystem continuity regardless of their potential utility (nouse) Conservation Versus Conservation Versus Preservation Patterns of natural ecosystem use Patterns of natural ecosystem use Consumptive use: natural resources are used directly to meet basic needs. Generally does not enter the market. Bush meat Wood Fiber Patterns of natural ecosystem use Patterns of natural ecosystem use Productive use: natural resources are used for economic gain. Value determined by the market Wood Fiber Minerals Patterns of natural ecosystem use Patterns of natural ecosystem use Maximum sustainable yield (MSY): the highest possible rate of use that a system can match with its own rate of replacement or maintenance. Optimal population: A population level that maximizes MSY based on production (e.g., individual growth, population increase) Maximum Sustained Yield Maximum Sustained Yield Patterns of natural ecosystem use Patterns of natural ecosystem use Precautionary principle: When MSY is uncertain then resource managers must favor the protection of the resource. Parable of the Commons Parable of the Commons (Tragedy of the Commons) Common resource pool/commons: a resource that is owned by no one or by many people.
Federal grasslands Open ocean fisheries Groundwater Atmosphere Parable of the Commons Parable of the Commons (Tragedy of the Commons) Common resource pool open to exploitation Personal benefit/need (largest amount over the shortest period of time) results in over exploitation (greater than the MSY) and the ultimate degradation of the resource pool. Lesson When there is no management or regulation of use, the pursuit of selfinterest will lead to the tragedy of all. Private ownership Regulated access Preventing a Tragedy of the Preventing a Tragedy of the Commons Sustained benefits Fairness in access rights Common consent of the regulated (stakeholder groups must accept the regulations) Restoration Restoration
Restoration ecology The intent of ecosystem restoration is to repair the damage to specific land and waters so that normal ecosystem integrity, resilience, and productivity returns. Society for Ecological Restoration mission statement “to promote ecological restoration as a means of sustaining the diversity of life on Earth and reestablishing an ecologically healthy relationship between nature and culture.” Conservation biology Endangered species/communities Geography – landscape ecology Ecosystem management Ecological Restoration Ecological Restoration
Wetland management mitigation Ecosystem services Re-vegetation/rehabilitation Vegetation cover – ecological function Restoration Restoration Restoration ecology (a young field with growing pains) Transition from static structural view of restoration to a dynamic, process based view of restoration Reference conditions: remnant sites, oldgrowth Static view of restoration Static view of restoration Reference Sites Reference site: used to identify the “natural state” of an area Problems- remnant sites are far and few between -Likely to underestimate spatial variation -Static, only one successional phase Static view of restoration Static view of restoration Reference Sites Landscape Approach Landscape Approach Reestablish important physical processes (e.g., fire) Reestablish physical structure (e.g., landscape mosaic) Return to and continue on a “natural” successional trajectory Function
(process) Structure Restoration difficulties Restoration difficulties Restoration can be limited of hampered by: Species extirpation Exotic, invasive, no-native species Soil loss, alteration Landscape change- topography (e.g., strip mining, mountain top removal) Florida Restoration Plan Biomes and Ecosystems Under Biomes and Ecosystems Under Pressure Forest biomes Ocean ecosystems Coral reefs and mangroves Forest Biomes Forest Biomes Ecosystem services Conserve biodiversity Moderate regional climates Prevent erosion Store carbon and nutrients Provide recreational opportunities Provide a number of vital goods (e.g., timber, fiber) World Forest Biomes World Forest Biomes Conversion into pastures and agricultural lands
Sunlight and primary productivity Food chain that leads more quickly to us! Causes of Deforestation Causes of Deforestation SunlightGrassCowMe SunlightCornMe Over exploitation of forest resources Silviculture: Forest Management Silviculture: Forest Management terms to look for Evenaged management = Clear cutting: no tree left behind (trees grow back all the same age) Unevenaged management = selective cutting (the resulting stand consists of different aged trees) Loss of Tropical Rainforests Loss of Tropical Rainforests causes Colonization: consolidation of agricultural lands Huge national debts Fast food chains and cheap hamburger Sustainable Forestry Sustainable Forestry Forests managed as ecosystems maintain functions/processes Maintain biodiversity and integrity of ecosystem Meet social, economic, cultural, and spiritual needs of present and future generations. Trends in Forest Management in Trends in Forest Management in Developing Countries Sustainable forest management Plantations of trees for wood or other products, e.g., cacao and rubber. Extractive reserves that yield nontimber goods Preserving forests as part of national heritage and ecotourism Management by indigenous people Ocean Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems 75% of the Earth’s surface An international commons? The Global Fish Harvest The Global Fish Harvest Aquaculture Aquaculture Fisheries in Distress: Cod Landings Fisheries in Distress: Cod Landings From Georges Bank, 19822004 A heavily subsidized industry A heavily subsidized industry Globally 4 million boats $78 billion in harvest at a cost of $124 billion Estimated that current fleet has 50% more capacity for catching fish than needed. ...
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