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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 (cont.) Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration Fisheries in Distress: Cod Landings Fisheries in Distress: Cod Landings From Georges Bank, 19822004 A heavily subsidized industry A heavily subsidized industry Globally 4 million boats $78 billion in harvest at a cost of $124 billion Estimated that current fleet has 50% more capacity for catching fish than needed. Fisheries Problems: Bottom Fisheries Problems: Bottom Trawling The Magnuson Conservation Act The Magnuson Conservation Act of 1976 Gave federal government authority to manage fisheries Claimed the area between 3 and 200 miles off shore as the “Exclusive Economic Zone” Designed to eliminate foreign fishing Designed to restore and conserve fish Sustainable Fisheries Act 1996 Sustainable Fisheries Act 1996 Reauthorized the Magnuson Act. Mandates that fish stocks be rebuilt Management plans and yields be based on scientific data Steps be taken to minimize “by catch” International Whaling International Whaling International Whaling International Whaling Whale Watching Whale Watching Coral Reefs Coral Reefs Symbiotic relationship between photsynthetic algae and Anthozoa (Cnidaria) same phylum as jellyfish Great diversity of marine vertebrates and invertebrates Important food sources for local people Wave erosion control Bleached Coral Bleached Coral Warm water Eutrophication Shrimp aquaculture Coastal development Sources of Damage to Coral Sources of Damage to Coral Reefs Mangroves Mangroves Protects coasts from storm damage and erosion Forms rich refuge and nursery for marine fish Public and Private Lands in the Public and Private Lands in the United States National parks and national wildlife refuges National forests Protecting nonfederal lands Final thoughts Distribution of Federal Lands in Distribution of Federal Lands in U.S. The Greater Yellowstone The Greater Yellowstone Coalition Environmental Concerns Reagan Clinton
Post WW II Housing Boom Cut trees less frequently Leave wider buffer zones along waterways Leave dead logs and debris Protect broader landscapes Build no new roads until damage to old ones is addressed New Forestry = Ecosystem New Forestry = Ecosystem Management Protecting Nonfederal Lands Protecting Nonfederal Lands Private land trust movement Nonprofit hold undeveloped land in a Tax incentives and subsides Safe harbor program private trust Easements landowner gives up development rights but keeps the land which is Chapter 12 Energy from Fossil Fuels Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) “Drill Baby Drill!” Harnessing Energy Sources: An Harnessing Energy Sources: An Overview Human power slaves Domestic animals Wind and water Steam (ships and locomotives) Gasoline (internal combustion followed by turbine engine) Nuclear How Fossil Fuels are Formed How Fossil Fuels are Formed
Paleozoic & Mesozoic eras, 100-500 million years ago 1000 yrs of accumulation/daily world energy needs 7,500 – 15,000 ft oil > 15,000 ft natural gas Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels Coal, oil, and natural gas Primary sources of energy. Supports a drill, spill, and kill legacy. More sustainable alternatives are available. Global Primary Energy Supply Global Primary Energy Supply
Coal, oil, and natural gas = 86% In the US = 83% Energy Consumption in the United Energy Consumption in the United States How we use it How we use it Transportation oilfor the production of gasoline and diesel. Electricity coal Heat natural gas and electricity to heat buildings Internal combustion engine Internal combustion engine Electricity is an energy carrier Electricity is an energy carrier Weekly Electrical Demand Cycle Weekly Electrical Demand Cycle Exploiting Crude Oil Exploiting Crude Oil How fossil fuels are formed Crudeoil reserves versus production Declining U.S. reserves and increasing importation Problems of growing U.S. dependency on foreign oil CrudeOil Reserves and Production CrudeOil Reserves and Production Estimated reserves: educated guesses about the location and size of oil or natural gas deposits. Proven reserves: more accurate estimate of the oil that can be economically obtained from the oil field based on additional drilling. Production: withdrawal of oil or gas from the oil field CrudeOil Reserves it’s all how you CrudeOil Reserves it’s all how you look at it Proven reserves are expressed as probability of yield and these probabilities can be used to change reserve estimates For example: in the same oil field you could get P90 90% probability of 400 million barrels P50 50% probability of 500 million barrels P05 5 % probability of 800 million barrels CrudeOil Reserves and the Hubbert CrudeOil Reserves and the Hubbert peak M. King Hubbert 1956 Hubbert Curves of Oil Production Hubbert Curves of Oil Production Oil production follows a bell-shaped curve and will peak in the next decade or two. Hubbert Curves of Oil Production Hubbert Curves of Oil Production CrudeOil Reserves and the Hubbert CrudeOil Reserves and the Hubbert peak Oil Production and Consumption in Oil Production and Consumption in the United States Cost in dollar/barrel and imports Cost in dollar/barrel and imports Inflationcorrected cost of total oil Inflationcorrected cost of total oil imported to the U.S. economy Gasoline prices in today’s prices Gasoline prices in today’s prices $ in initial costs + $ military support services = $91 per barrel of oil after Persian Gulf War = $170 per barrel of oil since Iraq war What a Barrel of Persian Gulf Oil What a Barrel of Persian Gulf Oil Really Costs U.S. Consumers Algeria Indonesia Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Organization of Petroleum Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries: OPEC Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Emirates Venezuela Problems From Foreign Oil Problems From Foreign Oil Dependency Variations in cost of purchases Effects longterm planning Target Threat of supply disruptions Limitations of nonrenewable resource Pollution Security Threats Security Threats Oil dependence: relies too much on OPEC cartel and volatile Persian Gulf states. Energy infrastructure: vulnerable to terrorist attacks. Global climate change: green house gas emissions Security Threats Security Threats Oil dependence: relies too much on OPEC cartel and volatile Persian Gulf states. Energy infrastructure: vulnerable to terrorist attacks. Global climate change: green house gas emissions How about other fossil fuels How about other fossil fuels
Natural gas 25 year supply Coal 225 year supply Oil shales and oil sands complex extraction technologies U.S Coal Deposits http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/reserves/coalres.pdf The Everlasting Coal Fire The Everlasting Coal Fire Mountain top removal Mountain top removal Primary and Secondary Effects Primary and Secondary Effects From Burning Coal
Global Warming Acid Rain Smog Burning Coal = CO2 + SO + H20 + Ash + (CxHxSxOx) Light + Noise + Heat Carbon (CO2) Emission Per Capita Carbon (CO Supply & Demandside Policies Supply & Demandside Policies getting at the economics Supplyside: Increase supply, e.g., open ANWAR and offshore to production Demandside: Control and reduce demand, e.g., Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE standards) ANWR ANWR “Drill Baby Drill!”
7 bb total (USGS) 4% estimated US daily oil consumption 7 yrs online 4 trill. ft3 Natural gas 2 month supply at current rate The Potential of the Conservation The Potential of the Conservation Reserve
An oil field that has the potential production of 6 million barrels per day, is three times the size of the Alaskan oil field, and it exploitation will NOT adversely effect the environment. The Elements of the Conservation The Elements of the Conservation Reserve Increasing fuel efficiency in cars (CAFE) Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power CHPs) Use florescent lights Increase home insulation Savings through conservation equal to 6 million barrels/day ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course BIOL 270 taught by Professor Jones during the Spring '06 term at South Carolina.
- Spring '06