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Unformatted text preview: Chap 17 con. Chap 17 con. Water pollution Waste water management and treatment Eutrophication Public policy Water Pollution and Its Water Pollution and Its Prevention Pollution Pollution Pollution: “the presence of a substance in the environment that because of its chemical composition or quantity prevents the functioning of natural processes and produces undesirable environmental and health effects.” Categories of Pollution Categories of Pollution Pollution is almost always the by-product of something beneficial/useful Pollution Categories Pollution Categories Air Particulates Acidforming compounds Photochemical smog CO2 CFC’s Pollution Categories Pollution Categories Water and land Nutrient oversupply Solid wastes Toxic chemicals Pesticides/herbicides Nuclear waste Water Pollution: Point and Water Pollution: Point and Nonpoint Sources Nonpoint source pollution: Pollution from diffuse sources (leading cause of water pollution in the US) Point source pollution: An identifiable localized source of pollution Pathogens: Diseasecausing agents (Table 17.1) Organic Wastes: Can act as excessive nutrient loads and lead to eutrophication and dead zones Chemical: Water Pollution Types Water Pollution Types Inorganic chemicals Heavy metals, acids, road salts Organic chemicals Petroleum, pesticides, detergents Sediments: see below Nutrients: eutrophication (ecological effects e.g., trophic dynamics) and dead zones Eutrophication Increased turbidity Loss of hyporheic functions
Refugia during disturbance Physical, chemical, and biological filtering. Effect of Sediments on Stream Effect of Sediments on Stream Ecology Wastewater Collection and Wastewater Collection and Treatment Systems Storm drains for collecting runoff from precipitation Sanitary sewers to receive all the wastewater from sinks, tubs, and toilets Development of Sewage Collection Development of Sewage Collection and Treatment Systems Through the 1970s sewage was discharged directly into waterways Clean Water Act of 1972 Septic Tank Treatment Aerobic digestion of solids in septic tank. Flow of liquids into drain field for evaporation, infiltration, or irrigation. Chap. 18 Chap. 18 Municipal Solid Waste: Disposal and Recovery From Landfill to Playing Field From Landfill to Playing Field Municipal Solid Waste: Disposal and Municipal Solid Waste: Disposal and Recovery The solidwaste problem Solutions to the solidwaste problem Public policy and waste management 1960 2.7lb/person/day 2003 4.5lb/person/day Increasing populations Changing lifestyles Disposable materials* Excessive packaging* Factors Contributing to Factors Contributing to Increasing Amounts of MSW * = two largest contributors to waste volume Factors Contributing to Increasing Factors Contributing to Increasing Amounts of MSW MSW Components MSW Components The Fate of MSW The Fate of MSW New Orleans Dump New Orleans Dump Problems of Landfills Problems of Landfills Leachate generation and groundwater contamination Methane production Incomplete decomposition Settling Improving Landfills Improving Landfills Located above water table and away from airports Contoured floor for leachatecollection system Covered with earthen material Groundwater monitoring wells New Landfills New Landfills Emphasis on groundwater protection. Landfills Siting: Public Reactions Landfills Siting: Public Reactions LULU (locally unwanted landuse) NIMBY (not in my backyard) NIMTOO (not in my term of office) Interstate Transfer of MSW Interstate Transfer of MSW Trash to Treasure (Table 181) Trash to Treasure (Table 181) Highest (more than 1 million tons) net importers of MSW
Pennsylvania Virginia Michigan Ohio Trash to Treasure (Table 181) Trash to Treasure (Table 181) Highest (more than 1 million tons) net exporters MSW
New York New Jersey Ontario, Canada Missouri Combustion Advantages Combustion Advantages Reduction trash weight (70%) and volume (90%) increases life of landfill Control of toxic or hazardous substances
Fly ash Bottom ash Same trash collection procedures Twothirds are WTE facilities in compliance with Clean Air Act regs. Combustion Advantages Combustion Advantages Produce 2,700 megawatts of electricity meeting power needs of 2.3 million homes Resource recovery Combustion Drawbacks Combustion Drawbacks Cost of construction Uninterrupted MSW stream flow Combustion ash loaded with hazardous substances – disposed in secure landfill Siting – offensive odors Competition with recycling efforts WastetoEnergy Operating WastetoEnergy Operating Facility Costs of MSW Disposal Costs of MSW Disposal Tipping fees increase: $34 to $263/ton Illegal dumping
Tires Refrigerators Car parts Source reduction The recycling solution Municipal recycling Regional recycling options Solutions to the SolidWaste Solutions to the SolidWaste Problem Source Reduction Source Reduction Less weight Internet information transfer Resale and donation of durable goods Lengthening a product’s life cycle Refusing bulk mail Composting Yard Sales Yard Sales The Recycling Solution The Recycling Solution Paper to paper. Newspaper = 13% MSW stream. Worth $30/ton. One ton of recycled paper = 17 trees, 6,953 gal. water and 463 gal oil. One ton of recycled steel = 2,500 lb iron ore and 1,000 lb of coal. Municipal Recycling Municipal Recycling 75% MSW recyclable if: Mandatory Easy to do Incentives Political and industrial support State Recycling Rates State Recycling Rates MSW Recycling in the United MSW Recycling in the United States Curbside Recyling Curbside Recyling Regional Recycling Options Regional Recycling Options Materials recovery facilities (MRFs) Mixed waste processing Mixed waste and yard trimmings composting Materials Recovery Materials Recovery The regulatory perspective Integrated waste management Public Policy and Waste Public Policy and Waste Management The Regulatory Perspective The Regulatory Perspective Solid waste disposal act 1965: first attempt by congress targeted solid waste Resource recovery act 1970: gave jurisdiction over waste management to EPA Resource conservation and recovery act (RCRA) of 1976: more restrictions on waste (e.g., air pollution) and more power to EPA (e.g., set regulations, close dumps) Superfund act 1980: federal intervention, addressed abandoned hazardous waste. Hazardous and solid waste amendments 1984: more EPA power all landfills and combustion facilities. Integrated Waste Management Integrated Waste Management Waste reduction Safe waste disposal Recycling and reuse Payasyouthrow (PAYT) trash pickup Payasyouthrow Trash Pickup Payasyouthrow Trash Pickup ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2011 for the course BIOL 270 taught by Professor Jones during the Spring '06 term at South Carolina.
- Spring '06