history of Conservation in the US lecture 2

history of Conservation in the US lecture 2 - History of...

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Unformatted text preview: History of conservation History of conservation (part 2) Timeline of US Conservation Timeline European settlement to 1850: The endless American Wilderness 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of natural resources 1880­1932: Early regulation and preservation 1920­1960: The “golden age” of resource management 1960­present: The modern environmental movement 120 United States Population 1790­1920 United States Population 1790­1920 100 Total US pop. millions 80 60 40 20 0 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 Year Conservation in the US Conservation in the US In the US “wildlife resources are owned by no one and are held in trust by the government for the benefit of present and future generations” (Organ and Batcheller, 2009) The “Public Trust Doctrine” is the foundation of wildlife conservation in the US Conservation in the US Conservation in the US Public Trust Doctrine Earliest examples Greek philosophers Codified by the Romans (AD 529) The Magna Carta (AD 1215) based on Roman law­ used to limit the king’s power (common law) incorporated into the US Constitution 1842 US Supreme Court (landowners claim to oysters) ruling was based on interpretation of the Magna Carta and has become known as the “Public Trust Doctrine” Conservation in the US Conservation in the US Public Trust Doctrine State ownership was nearly the downfall of US wildlife conservation The age of Market hunting (ended early 1900) The age of market hunting Era of overexploitation of wildlife in the United States American Robin Winter of 1902­1903 1 market hunter sold 120,000 In Texas and adjacent states Plovers, curlews, sandpipers, and other shorebirds were considered delicacies The age of market hunting Waterfowl Punt Gun Large numbers of waterfowl with a single shot Mounted on punt boat Used in 19th­20th centuries Not legal now The age of market hunting Passenger pigeon Most numerous bird in world. Wilson recorded passage of flock for 4 hrs, estimated >2 billion birds. 136 million birds nesting in 2,200 km2 area central Wisconsin The age of market hunting Passenger pigeon 1878, 1.5 million birds shipped to market from Michigan Martha the last Passenger pigeon died in Cincinnati Zoo 1914 Eastern buffalo Eastern buffalo Bison americanus pennsylvanicus is invalid synonym to Bison bison (likely a subspecies) Bison bison recent immigrant from Eurasia replaced Bison priscus (10,000) The age of market hunting American Bison Bison americanus pennsylvanicus is invalid synonym to Bison bison (likely a subspecies) 60 million in 1860 Bison were killed to reduce food supply of plains Indians Buffalo Bill – shot >200 bison in a day and 4,280 bison in 18 months Winter 1872­73 1.5 million hides sold on eastern market Only hide and tongue were stripped 1871­72: 8.5 million bison shot 1874 congress enacted protective legislation, vetoed by President Grant 1889 only 150 remained in wild 1894 rancher in Park County Colorado shot last free­roaming bison. A few small herds remained on public lands, Yellowstone National Park 1870’s bison skulls The age of market hunting The Feather Trade Feathers for fashion during 19th and early 20th centuries. Waterfowl and wading birds hunted for showy plumage. 1853­1877 skins of 17,500 Trumpeter swans sold. Between 1888 and 1897 only 57 skins sold The age of market hunting Egg Taking and Collecting harvested by egg hunters, and sold to restaurants From “Unregulated” exploitation to early From “ regulation and preservation By the late 1880s problems were obvious Once common and useful species were extirpated Forests were not regenerating Activities were changing landscapes Extinctions seemed likely Preservation Conservation in the US in Use/conserve Use/enhance Conservation in the US Conservation in the US Early Legislation for Wildlife 1639 Rhode Island: white­tailed deer closed May to Nov. 1708 Colony of New York: protected ruffed grouse, heath hens, and wild turkeys during part of the year. 1870’s bag limits in several states 1890’s several states fully protected Passenger Pigeon Conservation in the US Conservation in the US The Lacey Act of 1900 (the Lacey Act) signed into law by President McKinley (1900) First federal conservation law Prohibits the illegal capture and limits the transportation of wildlife across state lines In response to market hunters and game species declines Conservation in the US Conservation in the US The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act signed into law by President Roosevelt (FDR) in 1934 requires each waterfowl hunter 16 years of age or older to possess a valid Federal hunting stamp funds generated are used for the preservation and conservation of wetlands Conservation in the US Conservation in the US Pittman­Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937 signed into law by President Roosevelt (FDR) in 1937 11% tax on all hunting equipment funds used to restore and protect wildlife habitats Timeline of US Conservation Timeline European settlement to 1850: The endless American Wilderness 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of natural resources 1880­1932: Early regulation and preservation 1920­1960: The “golden age” of resource management 1960­present: The modern environmental movement Timeline of US Conservation Timeline of US Conservation 1920­1960: The “golden age” of resource management ALDO LEOPOLD Sand County Almanac 1949 HERBERT STODDARD The Bobwhite Quail 1931 The birth of modern wildlife The birth of modern wildlife management/ecology Social and economic factors driving conservation at the federal level Preservation Conservation in the US in A clear need for science guided policies Use/conserve Use/enhance The birth of modern wildlife The birth of modern wildlife management/ecology Social and economic factors driving conservation at the federal level Preservation Conservation in the US in The emerging field of ECOLGY A clear need for science guided policies Use/conserve Use/enhance The emerging field of ECOLGY Thomas Malthus econonist 1766-1834 Tradition of Natural History philosophy Charles Darwin Natural selection (1859) Darwin’s grandfather dabbled in evolutionary theory Evolution and adaptation Two central themes in ecology Charles Lyell geologist (dynamic earth) Alfred Russell Wallace The emerging field of ECOLGY Plant geographers Natural History Mendel Darwin (1859) “Animal Ecology” Elton (1927) Population ecology Europe North America Succession e.g., Clements (1916) Plant associations Lindeman (1942) “the Trophic – Dynamic Aspect of Ecology Evolutionary ecology Ecosystem ecology Community ecology Behavior ecology The birth of modern wildlife The birth of modern wildlife management/ecology Social and economic factors driving conservation at the federal level Preservation Conservation in the US in The emerging field of ECOLGY Use/conserve Use/enhance Two greatest conservation threats Two greatest conservation threats today (global) Climate change­ recently recognized 1970’s Habitat loss and fragmentation­ has accelerated in the recent past, but has been the center of conservation in the US Reductionism and science Reductionism and science Reductionism: an approach to understanding complexity by reducing complexity to “simple” interactions of parts. Reductionism is the default, and dominated early ecological research Is the sum greater than its parts? (e.g., a watch) “The whole is more than the sum of its parts” Aristotle The development of the Habitat The development of the concept Habitat­ The place or places an organism lives Merriam (1890): plant and animals change along elevational gradients Adams (1908): bird species change with plant succession Grinnell (1917): distribution of animals primarily based on climatic conditions, availability of food, and sites to breed The development of the Habitat The development of the concept Habitat­ The place or places an organism lives Lack (1933): recognized that animal respond to features in the environment and select a place to live “Habitat Selection” Hutchinson (1957) n­dimensional niche, biotic and abiotic components to habitat Reductionism applied to wildlife Reductionism applied to wildlife management/ecology Habitat can be reduced to food, shelter, mates We can manage species by managing habitat FOOD SHELTER Supplement Competitor control Predator control Habitat management The birth of modern wildlife The birth of modern wildlife management/ecology Social and economic factors driving conservation at the federal level Preservation Conservation in the US in The emerging field of ECOLGY Use/conserve Use/enhance Forest management Forest management (early ecologist ­ early foresters) Early failure to regenerate the economically important southern forests forced agencies to redirect emphases Not seeing the trees for the forest Emphasis placed on economic benefit Emphasis placed on maximizing production In many cases management assumed species were “interchangeable” Not seeing the trees for the forest Forest management Forest management (early ecologist ­ early foresters) Emphasis placed on maximizing production The “Working Forest” “We need to cut trees to maximize production” The Working Forest How can we increases production? Reduce rotation age 1) Find a new market The Working Forest How can we increases production? Reduce rotation age 1) Find a new market Pulp and fiber (use young trees) 1930’s The Working Forest How can we increases production? Reduce rotation age 1) Find a new market Pulp and fiber (use young trees) 1930’s 1) Breed a better tree The Working Forest How can we increases production? Reduce rotation age 1) Find a new market Pulp and fiber (use young trees) 1930’s 1) Breed a better tree Improved loblolly (fast growing) 1970’s The birth of modern wildlife The birth of modern wildlife management/ecology Social and economic factors driving conservation at the federal level Preservation Conservation in the US in The emerging field of ECOLGY Forest management Use/conserve Use/enhance Strict reductionism applied to wildlife Strict reductionism applied to wildlife management/ecology was limiting Ecology: interactions between the biotic and abiotic Theoretical ecology quickly moved beyond simple relationships General Systems Theory (Bertalanffy 1901­1972) Holism: the sum is greater than its parts Hierarch theory: a structure of interactions 1960’s Timeline of US Conservation Timeline European settlement to 1850: The endless American Wilderness 1850­1900: “Unregulated” exploitation of depletion of natural resources 1880­1932: Early regulation and preservation 1920­1960: The “golden age” of resource management 1960­present: The modern environmental movement ...
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